Catina pentru sanatate

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Catina, regina imunitatii, numita „Ginsengul romanesc”, certificata ca un bun vaccin antigripal, datorita fructelor sale, ca niste bobite aurii, care se coc toamna, ne ofera un nesperat ajutor tuturor, indiferent de varsta sau afectiuni. Conform cercetarilor efectuate de specialisti, catina care creste in Romania are un continut chimic de exceptie, poate cel mai bogat din intreaga lume. Niciunde in lume nici varietatea naturala, nici soiurile ameliorate nu contin atat de multe vitamine, minerale, microelemente, flavonoizi si aminoacizi cat cele intalnite la nivelul catinei care creste , mai ales in zona subcarpatica.

Fructul de catina contine de doua ori mai multa vitamina C decat macesul si de 10 ori mai mult decat citricele, de asemenea, contine o cantitate de trei ori mai mare de vitamina E decat germenii de grau, de trei ori mai multa vitamina A decat morcovii si de 4 ori mai multe enzime, care protejeaza corpul de radicalii liberi, in comparatie cu ginsengul. In fructele coapte continutul de vitamina C depsșește 400-800 mg la 100 g suc proaspat. Alte vitamine prezente in fruct sunt A, B1, B2, B6, B9, E, K, P, F. Mai regasim celuloza, betacaroten (intr-un procent net superior celui din pulpa de morcov), microelemente ca fosfor, calciu, magneziu, potasiu, fier si sodiu, uleiuri complexe, aminoacizii esențiali, acizii grasi esentiali. Uleiul de catina este folosit in tratamentul ulcerului gastric si duodenal, diareei, urticariei si starilor alergice, maladiilor neuroendocrine, reumatismului, afectiunilor circulatorii si hepatice, alcoolismului, anemiei, asteniei si chiar stresului.Uleiul de catina ajuta la reglarea tranzitului intestinal, fiind de folos persoanelor care sufera de constipatie. Are un efect protector asupra gingiilor. Extractele din frunze si ramuri au actiune diuretica. Catina contine o diversitate de nutrienti care au grija de sanatate fiind recomandata si in situatiile cand dorim sa scapam de cateva kilograme. Acest fruct este printre putinele surse naturale de acizi grasi omega-7, care ne poate ajuta sa ramanem slabi. Uleiul de catina, presat la rece, incetineste imbatranirea pielii. Pe langa vitamina C, vitaminele E si A face din catina si uleiul extras din ea, cea mai buna solutie naturala pentru regenerarea pielii. Este potrivit pentru toate tipurile de ten, avand un puternic efect antirid. Datorita ingredientelor active din continutul sau, uleiul de catina presat la rece vindeca pielea de arsuri (inclusiv solare), rani, psoriazis, dermatite, eczeme, acnee, herpes.Vinul de catina poate fi considerat un remediu natural, deoarece ajuta organismul vitaminizandu-l, avand in acelasi timp si o actiune tonica. Iata cum se prepara corect catina cu miere: Adauga o parte de miere la trei parţi de fructe de catina. Dupa spalarea si zdrobirea fructelor de catina, adauga-le intr-un borcan pana ce se umple pe jumatate. Toarna miere peste ele pana la umplerea completa a borcanului. Inchide borcanul etans, apoi pastreaza-l la frigider. După o saptamana, incepe sa iei din acest amestec cu aroma deosebit de placuta cate o lingurita sau doua in fiecare dimineata, pe stomacul gol, timp de cel putin o luna, asta pentru a-ti creste imunitatea si pentru a avea o sanatate de fier. Precautii sau contraindicatii in consumul de catina nu exista.

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Lathyrus sativus and its benefits

            The Lathyrus sativus L. is part of the Fabaceae family. The people known it under various names: dinner, dental peas, cicericula, dentisor. It is a precious annual plant, which has a long history of culture. The species Sativus is widely cultivated. Lathyrus sativus is a valuable plant of culture, both using it and as a precursor. Lathyrus sativus is cultivate on about 500 thousand ha the globe. The areas large occupy it crop in India, Spain, Portugal, Near East, North Africa. It is used in human nutrition and animal feeding. Flour from the Lathyrus sativus is used (10%) for tasty bread. The berries are used up to mature, green and mature in the form of garner. It is use in animal feed as a green fodder, a fan, alone or mixed with cereals, and the grains are given as concentrated fodder. The Lathyrus sativus are also used to obtain high-quality glues used in aviation, textile, veneering, etc. The stem is in the muscle, branched, but non-resistant to fall. The leaves par pinnate with two narrow, lance late leaves, end with branched circle. The flowers are of violet color, rarely pink, blue, placed in racemic 2-3.

The fruit are a pod patty with two wings, containing 2-6 seeds, angular or flat, white, yellowish-yellow, variegated. Plant height is from 80-90 cm up to 150 cm. The plant has a pivotal, deep (120-125 cm) root with branches. The roots has nodosities that represent colonies which are filled with nitrogen fixation bacteria. The Lathyrus sativus plants have the capacity to accumulate in soil up to 100 kg of nitrogen from atmosphere. It also serves as a good liver for bee.The bitter Lathyrus sativus contain on average 24.5% protein; 53.5% non-added extractive substances; 2.1% fat; 4.3% cellulose, etc. Straw and chaff have a 7 to 10% protein content, representing a fairly valuable feed. After the protein content exceeds peas, beans and other legumes for beans. From pod of Lathyrus sativus, can obtain  casein can be obtained, its quality being close to casein of animal origi The green parts of the plant contain up to 800 mg of the vitamin C, carotene up to 22 mg percent. The plant also contain saponins, bitter substances, a small amount of alkaloids, flavonoids, trace elements: manganese, iron, copper, chromium, etc. The pod of chichling can only be used in the diet after boiling.

As a herb are use the field Lathyrus sativus, the spring lathyrus. The Lathyrus sativus has been studied in pharmacologically and clinically by the Tomsk Institute of Medicine, Russian Federation. The Lathyrus sativus is recommended for use of the healing of chronic bronchitis and against pneumonia. Alcohol-ready with Lathyrus sativus can be used in homeopathy. At the same time, in popular medicine, the Lathyrus sativus is used to fight diarrhea. It is also used the infusion of roots from Lathyrus sativus in the case of insomnia and for heart pain. The secondary effects were not observed.

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Health benefits of the cauliflower

The cauliflower (Brassica cauliflora) is an annual plant from the cruciferous family. It is cultivated around of the world and used both for its pleasant taste and for the important intake of vitamins and minerals it brings to the human body. The edible part of it is the capitulum, which is composed of a large number of sprout flowering and plentifully branched. The cauliflower is cultivated more in China and India, which are also the largest exporter of this product. The cauliflower is very popular in Italian and French cuisine at the time. Lately this plant occupies more and more areas.

The cauliflower contain 1.5-3% protein, 3.8% sugar and vitamins. After the amount of vitamin C, it overcome of  2-3 time the white cabbage. The daily requirement in vitamin C can be assured by eating only 50 g of cauliflower. The cauliflower also contain an big amount of vitamin B2, rich in iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, which a quality taste, and is easily assimilated by the human body. Due to  of the high nutritional value and reduced content of cellulose, the cauliflower it is especially recommended for stomach ill patients and for children food. Having a high amount vitamin C, cauliflower protect against polyarthritis, a form of rheumatoid arthritis present at two or more joint.

The cauliflower is one of the vegetable to be consumed as often as possible. It has a lot benefits for the human body, especially if it is consumed in a cruel condition. The  cauliflower contain active substances which  prevent cancer and other severe conditions. It is a unique vegetable with a high concentration of nutrients. The  cauliflower is rich in antioxidants and phytonutrients. It also contain calcium, which is found around cauliflower bouquets. It has an increased content of phosphorus, manganese, vitamin K, folic acid and vitamin B6. It also contain natural carbohydrates, proteins, beneficial fats and dietary fiber. The cauliflower contain omega 3 fatty acids, allicin and selenium. It has a low calorie content and is therefore ideal for those who want to lose weight. It is one of the vegetable that should be found frequently in women’s dishes because it has the ability to prevent many types of cancer commonly found among  represent of  beautiful sex. Studies have shown that this vegetable prevent breast cancer, ovarian cancer and other cancer commonly found among women, thanks to an active substance, Indole-3-carbinol.

Due to the high fiber content is  protect the colon, reducing the risk of colon cancer. For men, the same vegetable prevent prostate cancer. The cauliflower, frequently consumed, reduce the risk of heart attack and improve the health of the heart. Due to presence of vitamin K , cauliflower make have anti-inflammatory properties, so  because  has heart-related benefit while maintaining low cholesterol level

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Role of leguminous crops for converting conventional farming to organic

  The Republic of Moldova is situated in a geographic zone with extremely favorable climate and very fertile soil. This combination giver an enormous opportunity for the agricultural sector of the national economy that allows and achieve rich and high quality harvest avoid intensive application of non-organic chemicals and fertilizers. In this connection to obtain the high quality and cleaner products one role important has on organic agriculture. However organic agriculture has a major contribution to lasting economic development and also plays an important role to improving the condition of the environment, water quality and biodiversity.

The practice of many farmers demonstrated that switching from conventional agriculture to organic farming is not easy, because as a result of this conversion farmers may have losses. For reduce these losses it is necessary to make a slow transition to production of organic agriculture. According to the basic methods and principles of organic agriculture, uses of fertilizers and other soil improvers, pesticides, growth promoters, etc. is not allowed. Taking into consideration those mentioned during the conversion period an important role can be play the leguminous crops and perennial herbs. More several crops species a making the subject of this desideratum. This group includes the following crops: pea, bean, soybean, lentil, chickpea, broad bean, peanut, and from perennial herbs: alfalfa, sainfoin. The agro-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova are favorable for cultivation and expansion of the leguminous crops areas. The leguminous crops with helping of the rhizobia bacteria, which come in symbiosis with plants, they can transformation of atmospheric nitrogen in molecular nitrogen which it into an accessible form for plants. For example, on 1 ha soybean area can be accumulate about 100 kg. of nitrogen in year. The alfalfa crop can accumulate in average of 150-160 kg per ha of biological nitrogen, which is equivalent to 500 kg of ammonium nitrate. At the same time, it is necessary to mentioned that nitrogen, which is fixed by the rhizobia bacteria, is used for a longer period, comparative with nitrogen which used by the mineral fertilizers: 51% in the first year, 27% in the second and 22% three year for crops, which are sown after the leguminous crops for grains. The researcher Bob Rodale from Rodale Institute, Pennsylvania State, USA has been demonstrated that converting conventional farming to organic need to pass with leguminous crops. According by data the yield of maize which was obtained at the third year, after two years, where was sown leguminous crops, was higher compared with yield, where was used mineral fertilizers and pesticides.

            Analyzing the compartment of the structure of leguminous crops in Moldova we can mention the following: if about two decades ago the share of leguminous crops and perennial herbs in the structure of field crops constituted 8-12%, including 180-220 thousand ha of alfalfa and 80-100 thousand ha of pea, then in recent years the structure of the land sown with perennial herbs, especially alfalfa, has changed essentially. The area of perennial herbs decreased from 180-200 thousand ha to 30-35 thousand ha. The percentage of pea in structure of field crops declined 4-5 times. Currently the share of leguminous crops and perennial herbs (alfalfa, sainfoin), is about only 6 percent, including leguminous crops – only 4 percent. The countries with the advanced agriculture the share of perennial herbs (alfalfa, sainfoin) and leguminous crops is 20-30%. The share of leguminous crops for the pedo-climatic conditions of our country, should be 20-25 percent, including 10-13% of the alfalfa.

Thus, the increase of the leguminous crops areas can lead not only to breaking the chain of diseases and weeds, but also to diminish of the harvest losses by agricultural producers in the transition period from conventional agriculture to organic farming. The harmonious combination at the leguminous crops with the livestock sector and the processing industry can lead to create sustainable, environmentally friendly and with high-yield farming.

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Benefits of potatoes.

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a herbaceous plant of the family solanaceae. Potato are native from South America. They are cultivated more than 120 countries. But its spreading in some places has it own history. For example, in the forties of the nineteenth century the potato was cultivated almost in all Europe. In some regions of Russia it not was still recognized. Some people who did not have necessary knowledge spread rumors, as if they were the “apple of the devil,” and if they will plant him, he defiled the earth, and not will be bread had any more. But after shortly period through all the villages spread the news : all peasants are obligation to plant of the “apple of the devil.” So a ordered the Emperor. In this period in Russia, was Emperor Nikolay II, who was  nicknamed “Palkin”, from the Russian word ” палка” that is “stick”, because the soldiers guilty of any misdemeanor were beaten with such a cruelty that many of they were chosen with deadly wounds. They has decided to plant potato in Russia as well under the threat of the :” stick “.

In one of the day, was reported to Emperor : the ordered not was executed the peasants a met the representatives of the power with forks and poles. The peasants from Perm and those of the Veatca, Kazan and Orenburg a rebelled. In three districts of thegovernment of Saratov were troubles. Then the Emperor issued a new ordered : all the rebels should beaten and in handcuffs, but the worst should be put in the  handcuffs and after that sent in Siberia.

Neither the sticks and neither of ax of the executioner not convinced the peasants to plant of the potatoes. Instead, the new and fruitful varieties, which was obtained by scientists, were able to convince of the peasants to plant potatoes. When scientists people discovered that from the potato can be obtained starch, molasses and spirits without potatoes could not work either the textile factories, neither those of the spirit. This story brought us the potato and in our country.

Today the potato is recommended by modern medicine for use, it is healthy, nourishing, energetic, allowed to all those predisposed to fattening. It facilitate intestinal function, ulcers, it is healing. The potato contain: vitamin B; C, iron, fiber, magnesium, potassium. Thanks to Vitamin C, potato is one of the most powerful antioxidants, which has a tonic, anti-infective effect, increases the resistance of blood vessels, help in the formation of red blood cells and regulate of the level of blood sugar and cholesterol. The potato provide 12% of the recommended daily fiber requirement and 21% of the potassium to body. Potato contain only 85 kcal per at 100 gram, that is twice as low as other carbohydrates.

The juice which obtained from potato can heal  the arthritis, hepatitis, constipation, hemorrhoids, but  potato starch is an excellent anti-inflammatory for gastrointestinal diseases. Potato juice doesn’t have equal at treating to gastric acid and gastric ulcer. It is an antispasmodic, diuretic, emollient. Diet with potatoes can lower of the blood pressure without adding at weight, according to a recent study.

It should be mentioned that fries in oils are extremely harmful because they contain starch, and the fat burned around starch generates a strong neurotoxin and carcinogen substance called acryl amide. However the potato is a healthy vegetable, as mentioned above, only the way we choose to consume it can turn it into a low-quality, even harmful food

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Health Benefits of Horseradish

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) make part of the cruciferous family. Is multiannual plant, with green-tinted, large, ellipsoidal leaves of 60-80 cm. long. The roots are thick with numerous lateral and additional roots. The stem is erect, branched, the shoots appear in the second year,which have a height of 140-150 cm. The flowers are white and small, gathered in a raceme, have a pleasant smell, the seeds do not form. The fruit present a round capsule. Horseradish multiply on vegetative way, through parts of roots, by stems and terminal buds. The plant is resistant of colds and frost. Horseradish is originally from the countries of South east Europe. It has a large spread in the countries of Western Europe, North America, Canada. Spontaneously, the horseradish grow and grow in Caucasus and Siberia on the banks of the water basins. Horseradish is known as a precious crop and as a medicinal plant from ancient times. Horseradish plants are rich in various mineral salts (potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium etc., fats, ascorbic acid, carotene). In 100 g of fresh roots of horseradish are contain nearly 100-120 mg calcium, 0.8 mg% sodium, 560 mg potassium, 2.1 mg iron, 212 mg sulfur. Horseradish, also contain such of organic substances as glutamine, asparagine, arginine.

The juice from fresh roots contain ferment of lysocline, which has antibiotic qualities. If became decreasing the amount of this ferment in human body the resistance at infectious diseases also reduces. Presence of the phytoncide gives of the horseradish taste, and awaken appetite, and also improving the digestibility food of the body.  The content of bactericidal substances, make the widespread use of horseradish as a spice for cucumber, tomatoes and other vegetables.For food are use both the leaves and horseradish roots. The leaves are used as a spice for pickles and preserving of vegetables. Roots are used in cruel and preserved condition. The roots in fresh condition are successfully used for preparing spices for different meat dishes. Due to the precious curative qualities, horseradish infusions are used in the popular medicine from many countries to treat hydrolyses, gall bladder in case of stone’s formation, at chronic rheumatism, anemia, respiratory diseases, scurvy etc.

Horseradish has beneficial effects on the body. Due to content of the roots it do makes it very effective for treating rheumatic diseases and upper respiratory diseases. Horseradish is very rich in vitamins (especially C and B complex) and minerals, it contain natural antibiotics, enzymes, phytohormones, etc. The horseradish also work on the cause of pain caused by inflammation. Some of the substance what contain in horseradish have beneficial effects in blood circulation at peripheral areas. At the same time, horseradish sulphates improve the elasticity of cerebral and coronary blood vessels, thus reducing the risk of stroke or stroke. Horseradish is used instead of mustard sheets for compresses and headaches. The  horseradish is harvested begin at the end of October – early November. The leaves are mowed then remove and roots. Horseradish roots can be stored in bulbs, warehouses and piles. When preserving in piles their width will not exceed 1,5-2,0 m, height-1,8 m, and the length of not more than 3 m. The thickness of the horseradish layer in piles need be 20 cm, but the layer of sand-of 1.2-2.0 cm.

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Evolution of the soybean areas in the Republic of Moldova

The mankind from ancient times is looking for the sources of protein and ways to solve this problem. In according by FAO data about 25% of the protein is not found for order to meet the growing needs of the earth’s globe population. In order to cover this important shortage of protein on the  world scale the animal production is alone limited and closely related of the plant production, because for produce one 1 kg of animal protein is necessary of 10 kg of vegetable protein. The capacity of transformation is very small and therefore of vegetable protein is increasingly used in human and animal nutrition.

More several plant species a doing the subject of this desideratum but soybean has a longer dominating on the global protein market. Namely soybean is the plant which provide at the quantitative and qualitative level superior and at the same time economically by essential nutrients of animal nutrition. Soybean doing part of the exceptionally valuable crop both of point of view of the food but on the feed or raw material for industry and agriculture. The nutritional value of soybean is given of the content and quality of the protein. Its protein are very similar with those of animal origin soybean emerging as the “plant of the future” capable of covering the world’s protein deficit. However an extraordinary importance is uses of those precious crop the seeds which contain 35-43% protein, 18-27% oil, 22-35% carbohydrates and impressive amount of vitamins and mineral salts. Currently the soybean are grown in most of countries, however in recent years around 90% of the production is concentrated in just a few countries: the United States (33.06%), Brazil (22%), Argentina (16% ), China (10%) and India (9%). Its obvious that among the largest producers by the world of soybean, there are no European countries. In Europe the soybean areas are account for about two per cent of the world production. In the 2014 the soybean surfaces were about 850 thousand hectares. Annual requirement in European Union (EU) of the soybean is about 5 million tones of genetically unmodified but only 50 percent can be received from European production. EU countries – Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Hungary have the greatest soybean growth potential. Almost 15% of Europe’s annual consumption is non-GM soybean because Europe produce only about 2,5 million tones.

In the EU the legislatives-normative framework for agriculture is set by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). To secure of the resource European of the vegetable protein from soybean genetically unmodified through actions to stimulate and growth of areas cultivated in the Danube basin and adjacent areas in Europe. In 2012 was created the Danube Soja Association which is an independent, international, non-profit for diverse beneficiaries, based in Vienna. The purpose of this association is to make her members have a succeed in their work. Thus cultivation of soybean crop offer an opportunity attractive to meet the new Common Agricultural Policy requirements for ecological interest areas.

The agro-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova are favorable for cultivation and expansion of the soybean surfaces. The data a convincing us because the areas occupied with this crop in the past was considerable. The interest for soybean in Bessarabia until the war increased more after 1935, when appeared a number of foreign companies. In the 30s – 40s of last century soybean was called “golden from the soil” being one of the main food crop by the world including Moldova. These societies had special people through villages who concluding contracts with the peasants providing them with necessary instructions in advance concerning of technologies of growing and also supplied the seed conditional, varieties in according by the pedoclimatic conditions. So in 1939 the area of soybean cultivated reached 54.5 thousand hectares but in 1940 – 68389 hectares. In 1950-1953 soybean areas had occupied in Moldova about 50-62 thousand hectares. However due the fact that not was elaboration one the scientific technology the harvested per hectare of this crop continue to remain low and later the areas for cultivation were diminished. In the 1972-1974, for example the soybean were cultivated only on 2-3 thousand hectares. But later the interest in this crop as a source of high quality protein has begun to grow. The further increasing of livestock productivity has largely depended on solving the problem of protein deficiency in feed rations of animals. Preliminary calculations have demonstrated the need to soybean cultivation which serves as an important source for providing an animal feed with fodder protein.

Soybean is one of the oldest crop cultivated by human. In Europe and the USA the soybean has been brought from China, where the traditions of cultivating this crop a listing in centuries. Until recently this crop was used only as a animal feed throughout the world. In the Republic of Moldova the role soybean has remained the same so far. Currently the soybeans’ used everywhere to extract the protein and its derivatives, for produce substitutes of animal and vegetal food. Soybean composition is exceptionally rich in multifunctional and quality protein has enabled to development of many successful protein ingredients which are use in the human consumption.

As was mentioned the natural conditions of soil and climate the heat and light regimes in all areas of Republic of Moldova are suitable for soybean cultivation. The limiting factor for obtaining of soybean cropping is the soil moisture in especially which during the flowering, formation and the filling of the grain. The experiences which were conducted of the many years and practice of production demonstrated that the northern and central area of the Republic of Moldova is quite favorable for soybean cultivation and for obtaining of the high yields on non-irrigated land.

Over the years the soybean areas in Moldova had different fluctuations. In period of 1988-1989 the soybean surfaces reached at 40 thousand hectares. In the 1996-1997 the soybean areas were decreased drastically reaching at 3-4 thousand hectares.

The causes which led to the reduction of soybean surfaces:

-breaching of the technological discipline at cultivation of this crop including the location of soybean after the unfavorable precursors, sowing in the late term, insufficient fertilization, the lack of effective weed control, the harvest losses because are used the combines for harvested which are morally and physically (up to 15 -20 percent);

-does not paying sufficient attention to processing of raw materials and use of processed products for obtaining a wide range of food products.

In order to obtain one expected yield the soybean producers have an important role in respecting of soybean cultivation technologies. To increasing of the volume of soybean production is needed support from the state. For example, in the Republic of Croatia soybean producers are benefited from state subsidies of up to 280 euro per hectare. In the Republic of Serbia those who cultivate  OF soybean receiving subsidies of up to 130 euro per hectare. Given that the soybean is an important economic crop the support for soybean producers by the state could be lead to increasing the production volumes. Also will be ensuring the internal market and the full utilization the available capacities of the processing and export industries.

In the last 8-10 years evolution of the soybean surfaces in the Republic of Moldova marked an obvious increase. For example, in 2006 the area of soybean cultivated was amounted about 56 thousand hectares but  in the 2010-2012 the soybean area reached by 59-60 thousand hectares.

The volume of soybean production stability and quality of production as with any other crop depend not only of the cultivation level but also of the varieties which cultivate. To correct choice of soybean varieties for sowing there are some several important factors that need to take into consideration as they can directly affect production potential and profitability the soybean. The maximum production potential in particular of one soybean variety is genetically determined and can be only achieved by appropriate management and appropriate environmental conditions. The correct choice of soybean varieties need be based on productivity, production stability, precocity, drooping resistance, pod dehiscence and quality of harvesting.

The obtaining of the high yield by insignificant fluctuations over the years were largely dependent of the introduction the new varieties for cultivation with superior production capacities endowed with characteristics of resistance at the factors which limiting it. The soybean yield per hectare in 2013 was 1.7 tons at hectare but in 2014 the yield per hectare of soybean reached 2.1 tons.

The soybean between leguminous plants has the highest requirements for nitrogen. If will be doing the seed inoculation procedure properly that the significant amounts of nitrogen will be procured from atmospheric air. The nitrogen biological fixation depend of the growing conditions and it can providing till 50-70% from total quantity requirement of the nitrogen for soybean. The remainder of the requirement of nitrogen for soybean is provide by the mineralization of the organic matter from the soil or from the nitrogen which remaining from the precursor crop. The amount of the nitrogen accumulate of soybean per hectare: 118-120 kg, that is equivalent about 300-350 kg the of ammonium nitrate. In the current conditions when are reduction the possibilities of buying a mineral fertilizers, pesticides and other preparations, need given more importance of soybean – universal and multiplicative crop, efficient in economic, financial and ecological term, being at the same time recognized everywhere as a strategic import-export crop.

In this context grown interest more farmers, leaders of the agricultural formations towards this strategic crop. According the experiences if all the technological elements to growing of soybean are respected the soybean can be more productive of 2-3 time.

Taking into consideration the importance of this crop for livestock sector need elaborate one program for soybean production and processing. The purpose of this program need being to extending of the soybean surfaces till 120-150 thousand hectares for increasing volumes of soybean production, process and use finished products and also produce the protein and its derivatives. This program should provide for a number of organizational, financial and technical-material measures. In this way we will be able to ensure, first and foremost the needs of the internal market with the prospect of obtaining and competitive products for the European market. We think that it will stabilize of the soybean production and industrial process, where there will be a demand for constant raw material, which will condition and determine the market for soybean producers.

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Broad bean – food plant

The broad bean – Vicia faba (L), is part from family Fabaceae, herbaceous, annual, autogamous, leguminous plant, with therapeutics value, originating from the Mediterranean basin. This vegetable is grown and consumed since the Bronze Age. The broad bean did not go unnoticed even in Rome, to local people even using it to make bread mixed with wheat. The broad bean was appreciated as a food plant even and antiquity by Egyptians, Jews, Greeks. In fact, the great mathematician Pythagoras recommend that his disciples due to of his properties.

The broad bean which a no matured is used in food, contain more protein than green peas and green beans. It contain 32-37% of protein, 50-60% of carbohydrates, 2.2% of fat, also carotene (0.22 mg) and ascorbic acid (33 mg). Are uses also mature broad bean, for soup or stifled. The seeds contain also cellulose, mineral salts of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, magnesium, small amounts of vitamins A, B, B2, C. The green pastes contain water, proteins, fats, unassisted extractive substances, cellulose, vitamins B, B2, C and have an energy value of 101 kcal per 100 g.

The broad bean look very good with peas, having brown beans with brownish-red. The broad bean can be decortificated and eaten raw, with a little salt, because young beans contain a lot of vitamins A, B, C, which suits any stomach been as sensitive. The broad bean which was dry, after maceration in the water, can be prepare the soups and pizzas, rich in iron and sulfur.

Was discovered of the curative principles of the broad bean and has put him on the list of consumed dried vegetable seeds, after that his place was vertiginously approached of positions of forehead, along with dried peas and beans. Tea of broad bean made to help for gout, even old rheumatism, joint pain, urinary sand or gall bladder. The strains, leaves, flowers and pods have a diuretic and sedative action. Cures with Vicia faba are recommended for the treatment of urinary tract disorders, nephritic colitis, renal lithiasis, inflammation of the prostate, rheumatism. Also are used parts of the plant or the ashes, which get resulting from the burning of the stems and of pods

Broad bean is not pretentious to the soil, but it prefers the wet soil. It grow well on sectors with a south exposure. The broad bean is sown the open field very early, between March 10 and April 10. The seeds begin to germinate at 6 degrees, the plants support of the frosts up to minus 4 degrees. Before sowing the seeds soak for 2 hours (no longer because they can rot), dipping them into the water, because is necessary to soften easily their coating. The broad bean does not have high demands for predecessor plants. The best productions are getting after potatoes, beets, corn or other crop which leave field clean without weeds. It sown in rows of widths with 35-40 cm at depth of 6-7 cm. The care method of broad bean is analogous to that of the bean. On small surfaces for high-caliber plants, are put high stakes to which bind the plants. The low plants do not need to be tied. Harvesting of the broad bean begin about July 1-10, selectively collected every 5-10 days.

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Bilberry and its benefits

Bilberry (Vaccinam myrtillus L.),is part from Eficaceae family is spread in the Nordic hemisphere, Montana area of Europe, Asia, North America. He prefer places with spruce, starting from the lower limit of spruce, reaching the alpine area.

Bilberry is a shrub with superficial root very dense interlaced like a passage bush, without absorbent hair. The stem is very branched, of green color, up to 50 cm. The leaves are alternate, falling, up to 3 cm long, and width up to 2 cm, with short petiole, oval or elliptical limb, acute peak.

Flowers are solitary, short pedicles, nuts, showing a persistent calyx with the ovary. The fruit is a dull, blue or almost black with a purple-purple juice, sweet, sour and aromatic taste. Both the leaves and the fruit are used. The leaves, with the rich content of arbutin, are the most valuable product that can be harvested from this species. It also contains sufficient amounts of condensed nucleated tanning compounds. Fruits are edible rich in coloring matter. Can be used fresh, frozen or dried. Fruits of bilberry contain: water, sugars, protein, organic acids, pectin compounds, vitamins (A, P, B, E), mineral salts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, etc. The leaves contain: triterpene, oleanolic acid, horseradish acid, beta-amyrina, phytosterols, glucosides, benzoic acid, quinic acid, flavonoids, evercitin free and glucoside, resins, mucilage, mineral salts and sugars.

Bilberry leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhea, gastrointestinal, catarrh, as urinary antiseptic and slightly diuretic, as an adjunct in the treatment of diabete. It enters in the composition of the antiscrerous feathers. Bilberry anthocyans have a beneficial effect on microcirculation increase capillary resistance, diminish their permeability, have antihemorrhagic effect on capillary permeability disorders, venereal diseases. It is recommended for diabetic microangiopathy. In ophthalmology, it has a favorable effect on retinal pigment regeneration resulting in increased visual acuity and improvement of hemeralopia. In the fight against diarrhea, are used dry fruits, because the fresh ones have an irritant effect, which cause by the acid ballast which gives them purgative properties. They also have antibacterial action in the gut.

In popular medicine the dried fruits or macerated in brandy are used against diarrhea as well as dried branches with leaves, which are used for pain stomach cramps, chest and heart disease.

Multiplication of the bilberry can be achieve through rooting the lignified or green and also through seedlings and separating butashi, methods known in agricultural practice. Are planted butashi with roots or parts of old bushes at a distance of 2×1 m in holes of 30x30x30 cm. For each bushes will added 4-5 kg of well fermented manure .

The leaves are collected from the end of the July to September. Drying of the leaves can be done through artificial dryers at the temperature of 35-40 degrees Celsius. From 6-9 kg of green branches you can get 1 kg of dried leaves. Leaves are harvested in August. These are detached from the branches by hand or devices in the form of combs, the spaces between the teeth being smaller than their diameter. The cleaning of impurities is usually done by putting them in dishes with water, removing all impurities that float. After they at air-dried, the fruits will be dried further in heated rooms.

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Evoluția suprafețelor cultivate cu soia în Republica Moldova

Omenirea din cele mai vechi timpuri este în căutarea surselor de proteină şi căilor de soluţionare a acestei probleme Întru asigurarea necesităţilor în creştere a populaţiei globului pământesc, conform datelor FAO nu se ajung cca 25% de proteine. Pentru a acoperi acest deficit important de proteină pe scară mondială, producţia animală, singură este limitată şi strâns legată de producţia vegetală, deoarece pentru a produce 1 kg de proteine animale este necesar de 10 kg de proteine vegetale. Randamentul transformării este foarte mic şi de aceea proteinele de origine vegetală sunt din ce în ce mai mult folosite în alimentaţia omului şi a animalelor.

Mai multe specii de plante fac obiectul acestui deziderat, însă soia de foarte mult timp domină piaţa mondială a proteinelor. Anume soia este planta,care asigură la nivel cantitativ şi calitativ superior, şi în acelaşi timp economic cu substanţe nutritive necesare în alimentaţia animalelor. Soia face parte din culturile excepţional de valoroase atât din punct de vedere alimentar, furajer sau materie primă pentru industrie cât şi agronomic. Valoarea nutritivă deosebită a boabelor de soia este dată de conţinutul şi calitatea proteinelor. Proteinele ei sunt foarte asemănătoare celor de origine animalieră,soia apărând ca „planta viitorului” capabilă să acopere deficitul proteic mondial. În legătură cu aceasta o importanţă deosebită capătă utilizarea acestea culturi preţioase, seminţele căreia conţin 35-43% proteine şi 18-27% ulei,22-35% hidraţi de carbon, o cantitate impunătoare de vitamine şi săruri minerale.

Actualmente soia se cultivă în majoritatea ţărilor, însă cu toate acestea, în ultimii ani, aproximativ 90% din producţie este concentrată doar în câteva ţări: Statele Unite (33,06%), Brazilia (22%), Argentina (16%), China (10% ) şi India (9%).Este evident că printre cei mai mari producători din lume nu există ţări europene. În Europa, suprafeţele ocupate cu soia sunt aproximativ două procente din producţia mondială. În 2014  suprafeţele cu soia au fost de cca  850 mii hectare.Din necesarul anual de 5 milioane de tone de soia nemodificată genetic, doar 50 la sută poate fi asigurată din producţia europeană. Ţările din Uniunea Europeană (UE)- România, Bulgaria, Croaţia şi Ungaria au cel mai mare potenţial de creştere a suprafeţelor cu soia. Aproape 15% din consumul anual a ţărilor din Europa reprezintă soia nemodificată genetic, deoarece Europa produce doar cca 2,5 milioane de tone.

În UE cadrul legislativ-normativ pentru agricultură este stabilit de catre Politica Agricolă Comună (PAC). Pentru securizarea resursei europene de proteină vegetală din soia nemodificată genetic prin actiuni de stimulare a creşterii suprafeţelor cultivate in bazinul dunărean şi zonele adiacente din Europa în anul 2012 a fost creată asociatia Danube Soja, care este o asociaţie independentă, internaţională, non-profit, pentru beneficiari foarte diverşi, cu sediul la Viena. Scopul acestei asociaţiei este de ai face pe membrii ei să aibă succes in munca lor. Astfel, cultivarea boabelor de soia oferă o oportunitate atractivă pentru a indeplini noile cerinte ale PAC pentru zonele de interes ecologic.

Condiţiile agroclimatice ale Republicii Moldova sunt favorabile pentru cultivarea şi extinderea suprafeţelor cu soia, fapt de care ne conving datele, că pe timpuri suprafeţele ocupate cu această cultură au fost considerabile. Interesul faţă de soia în Basarabia de până la război a crescut după anul 1935, când au apărut un şir de societăţi acţionare străine. În anii 30 – 40 ai secolului trecut soia era numită „aurul din sol”, fiind una din principalele culturi alimentare din lume, inclusiv şi în Moldova. Aceste societăţi aveau oameni speciali prin sate, care încheiau contracte cu ţăranii, le ofereau în prealabil instrucţiuni necesare referitoare la agrotehnică, îi aprovizionau cu sămânţă condiţionată şi de soi în corespundere cu condiţiile pedoclimaterice. Astfel, în anul 1939 suprafaţa cultivată cu soia a ajuns până la 54,5 mii hectare, iar în 1940 – 68389 de hectare. În anul 1950-1953 semănăturile de soia ocupau în Moldova cca 50-62 mii de hectare. Totuşi, din cauza că nu era elaborată o tehnologie ştiinţifică de cultivare, recoltele la hectar a acestei culturi continuau să rămână joase, iar mai târziu suprafeţele pentru cultivarea ei au fost micşorate. În anii 1972-1974, bunăoară soia a fost cultivată doar pe 2-3 mii de hectare. Însă mai târziu interesul faţă de această cultură ca sursă de proteină de înaltă calitate a început să crească. Sporirea în continuare a productivităţii animalelor, a producţiei zootehnice a depins în mare măsură şi de soluţionarea problemei deficitului de proteine în raţiile de hrană a animalelor. Calculele efectuate în prealabil au demonstrat necesitatea cultivării soiei, care serveşte drept sursă importantă de asigurare a animalelor cu proteină furajeră.

Soia este una din cele mai vechi culturi cultivate de om. În Europa şi America soia a fost adusă din China, unde tradiţiile de cultivare a acestei culturi se pierd în secole. Până nu demult în întreaga lume această cultură era utilizată doar ca hrană pentru animale. În Republica Moldova menirea soiei a rămas aceiaşi şi până în prezent. Actualmente, soia este utilizată pretutindeni pentru extragerea proteinei şi a derivatelor acesteia pentru producerea substituenţilor produselor alimentare de origine animală şi vegetală, compoziţia soiei, care este excepţional de bogată în proteină multifuncţională şi de calitate a permis elaborarea a numeroase ingrediente proteice alimentare, utilizate cu succes în consumul uman.

După cum a fost menţionat condiţiile naturale de sol şi climă, regimurile de căldură şi lumină din toate zonele Moldovei sunt prielnice pentru cultivarea soiei. Un factor limitativ la obţinerea recoltei de soia îl constituie umiditatea solului, îndeosebi în perioada înfloririi, formării şi umplerii boabelor. Experienţele efectuate pe parcursul mai multor ani şi practica de producţie demonstrează că zonele de nord şi centru ale republicii sunt destul de favorabile pentru cultivarea soiei şi obţinerea recoltelor înalte pe terenuri neirigate .

Pe parcursul anilor suprafeţele ocupate cu soia în Moldova au avut diferite fluctuaţii În perioada anilor 1988-1989 suprafeţele cu soia au atins cifra de 40 mii hectare.În anii 1996-1997 suprafeţele cu soia s-au micşorat drastic, ajungând la 3-4 mii hectare.

Cauzele care au condus la reducerea suprafeţelor de soia au fost:

-încălcarea disciplinei tehnologice la cultivarea acestei culturi, inclusiv:amplasarea soiei după premergători neprielnici, efectuarea semănatului în termeni târzii, fertilizarea insuficientă, lipsa unor măsuri eficiente de combatere a buruienilor, pierderile de roadă la recoltare cu combine moral şi fizic uzate (până la 15-20 la sută);

-neacordarea unei atenţii suficiente prelucrării materiei prime şi utilizării produselor procesate pentru obţinerea unui sortiment larg de produse alimentare.

Pentru obţinerea recoltelor scontate, producătorii de soia au un rol important în respectarea tehnologiilor de cultivare a soiei. Pentru a mări volumul de producere este necesar de o susţinere şi din partea statului. De exemplu în republica Groată producătorii de soia sunt asiguraţi cu subvenţii din partea statului de până la 280 euro pentru un hectar, iar în republica Serbă cei care cultivă soia, de asemenea primesc subvenţii de până la 130 euro la hectar . Având în vedere faptul că soia este o plantă importantă economică, de astfel şi susţinerea producătorilor de soia din partea statului ar putea conduce la creşterea volumelor de producţie pentru a asigura piaţa internă şi utilizarea deplină a capacităţilor disponibile ale industriei de procesare şi a exportului.

În ultimii 8-10 ani evoluţia suprafeţelor cultivate cu cultura soiei în Republica Moldova a marcat o majorare evidentă. Spre exemplu în anul 2006 suprafaţa ocupată cu soia a constituit cca 56 mii ha, iar în anii 2010-2012 suprafeţele ocupate cu soia au ajuns la 59 – 60 mii hectare .

Volumul recoltei de soia, stabilitatea şi calitatea producţiei la fel ca la orice altă cultură agricolă, depinde nu numai de nivelul agrotehnic de cultivare, dar şi de soi.Pentru alegerea corectă a soiurilor de soia in vederea semănatului, există mai mulţi factori importanţi, care trebuie luaţi in calcul, deoarece acestea pot afecta in mod direct potenţialul de producţie şi rentabilitatea. Potenţialul maxim de producţie al unui anumit soi de soia este determinat genetic şi poate fi atins doar printr-un management adecvat şi in condiţii de mediu corespunzător. Alegerea corectă a soiurilor trebuie să se facă in funcţie de productivitate,stabilitatea producţiei, precocitate, rezistentă la cădere, dehiscenţa păstăilor şi calitatea recoltei.

Obţinerea recoltelor înalte cu fluctuaţii neînsemnate pe ani a fost în mare măsură dependentă de introducerea în cultură a soiurilor cu capacitate superioară de producţie, înzestrate cu însuşiri de rezistenţă la factorii care o limitează. Recolta medie de soia la hectar în anul 2013 a fost de 1,7 tone la hectar, iar în anul 2014 productivitatea soiei la hectar pe republică a atins nivelul de 2,1 tone.

Dintre toate leguminoasele soia are cele mai ridicate cerinţe pentru azot. Daca inocularea seminţelor este efectuată corect, cantităţi importante de azot vor fi procurate din aerul atmosferic. In funcţie de condiţiile de creştere, fixarea biologică a azotului poate furniza 50 – 70% din necesarul total de azot al culturii de soia. Restul necesarului de azot al soiei este furnizat prin mineralizarea materiei organice din sol sau de azotul ramas de la cultura premergatoare. Cantităţile de azot acumulate de soia la 1 hectar: 118- 120 kg, care este echivalent cu cca 300-350 kg de salpetru amoniacal.

În condiţiile actuale, când are loc o reducere a posibilităţilor de procurare-cumpărare a îngrăşămintelor minerale a pesticidelor şi a altor preparate, o însemnătate tot mai mare îi revine soiei – cultura universală şi multiplicativă, eficientă în plan economico-financiar şi ecologic, fiind totodată recunoscută pretutindeni ca o cultură strategică de import –export.În această ordine de idei a crescut interesul tot a mai multor fermieri, lideri de formaţiuni agricole faţă de această cultură strategică.. Conform observațiilor,dacă se respectă în tocmai toate elementele tehnologice de cultivare a acestei culturi ea poate fi mai productivă de 2-3 ori.

Luînd în consideraţie importanţa acestei culturi preţioase pentru sectorul zootehnic în producerea nutreţurilor pentru păsări şi animale, cât şi pentru industria alimentară, considerăm oportun de a elabora un program de producere şi procesare a boabelor de soia. Scopul acestui program fiind extinderea suprafeţelor cu soia pînă la 100-120 mii hectare, sporirea volumului de producere a boabelor de soia,procesarea şi utilizarea produselor finite pentru producerea proteinei şi derivatelor ei. În cadrul acestui program trebuie prevăzut realizarea unui şir de măsuri organizatorice, financiare şi tehnico-materiale. Astfel vom putea asigura, în primul rînd necesităţile pieţei interne cu perspectiva obţinerii şi a unor produse competitive pentru piaţa europeană. Procesarea industrială a soiei va stabiliza producţia din sectorul agrar, unde va fi o cerere de materie primă constantă, ce va condiţiona o piaţă de desfacere determinată pentru producătorii de soia.

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