Rolul leguminoaselor în asolamentele de cultură

Sursele de proteină vegetală sunt leguminoasele pentru boabe. Este cunoscut faptul, că una din particularitățile economice de bază de mare importanta a acestor grupuri de plante leguminoase o constituie conținutul înalt de substanțe proteice al boabelor. Din această grupă de culturi fac parte următoarele plante: mazărea, fasolea, soia , lintea, năutul, bobul, arahidele, fasolita și lupinul alb. Valoarea nutritivă a leguminoaselor pentru boabe este întregită și de conținutul lor sporit de extractive neazotate (25-50%), fosfor, calciu și vitamine Comparând boabele de leguminoase cu cele de cereale, constatăm că primele conțin de două ori, iar în unele cazuri chiar și de trei ori mai multe substanțe proteice. În afară de conținutul înalt de substanțe proteice, semințele unor plante de leguminoase sunt bogate în ulei de o calitate excepționala. Astfel boabele de soia conțin 18-25% ulei, iar cele de arahide peste 50%. E important faptul că, după recoltarea lor, solul rămâne îmbogățit cu o cantitate însemnată de azot organic. Acest lucru se realizează prin intermediul bacteriilor fixatoare de azot, ce trăiesc pe rădăcini, în simbioză cu planta. De valoarea leguminoaselor puteți să vă imaginați din următoarele fapte. La obținerea a 4,0 t/ha de boabe culturile cerealiere extrag din sol circa 120 kg de azot. În condițiile actuale, când producătorii agricoli dispun de un potențial economico-financiar scăzut, sporește considerabil rolul acestor culturi îndeosebi în  rotația semănăturilor și soluționarea unui complex de probleme de ordin economic, agrotehnic, ecologic ,alimentar și furajer. Dat fiind faptul , că în ultimii ani atât pe piața internă cât și externă aceste culturi sunt mai solicitate, ele au devenit mai atractive pentru producătorii agricoli, deoarece în primul rand ele servesc ca surse însemnate de proteină în alimentația oamenilor și în hrana animalelor, cat și ca culturi care pot genera profit. O pondere mai însemnată culturile leguminoase pentru boabe o au în structura culturilor de însămânțare. Ca exemplu poate servi cultura fasolei, care în mare parte este semănată în gospodăriile individuale și în gospodăriile țărănești. În tarile cu o agricultură avansată cota ierburilor perene (lucerna, sparceta) și a culturilor leguminoase în asolamentele de câmp constituie 20-30 la sută. Extinderea suprafețelor de leguminoase în asolamentele de câmp permite de a rupe lanțul de boli, vătămători și buruieni și concomitent de a trece treptat la implementarea agriculturii ecologice, totodată și la ameliorarea situației fitosanitare. Totodată, este necesar de menționat că leguminoasele asigură sectorul zootehnic cu proteină digestivă, iar proteina din leguminoase este cu mult mai ieftină.

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Beneficiile boabelor de soia

Image result for boabe din soia  Soia a fost promovata o buna perioada de timp ca fiind utila in scaderea colesterolului LDL ( colesterol rau), un factor de risc pentru boli de inima. Ca şi în cazul multor altor studii iniţiale, studiile ce au urmat nu au putut cimenta afirmatiile privind beneficiile aduse de soia. În 2008, la indemnul dat de American Heart Association (AHA) şi a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) s-a reconsiderat eticheta care a permis producătorilor de produse de soia sa afiseze faptul că soia “ne face inima sanatoasa”, arătând lipsa de dovezi ştiinţifice puternice şi coerente.

Cu toate acestea, soia poate reduce intr-adevar colesterolul rau LDL cu câteva puncte procentuale în cazul persoanelor cu un nivel de colesterol nesanatos (hiperlipidemie), daca mai mult de jumătate din aportul zilnic de proteine ​​este provenit din soia si daca inlocuiesc proteinele ​​lactate şi animale, care contin grasimi saturate si colesterol nesanatos.

Două meta-analize ale unor studii clinice randomizate, unul luând în considerare 9 studii care au inclus un total de 432 de subiecţi, iar altul revizuirea a 10 studii cu un total de 608 de subiecţi, au arătat că mancand alimente pe baza de soia bogate in isoflavonoide, se inhibă semnificativ pierderea de masa osoasa si se stimuleaza formarea osoasa la femeile aflate la menopauza. Sfat practic: Doar 6 luni de alimentatie bazata pe soia poate fi suficienta pentru a exercita efecte benefice asupra oaselor la femeile aflate la menopauza. Toate derivatele tradiţionale din soia (tofu, lapte de soia, miso si tempeh) furnizeaza minim 30 / 40 mg isoflavonoide per portie. Boabele de soia prăjite sunt o sursă deosebit de bună, doar o jumatate de cana contine 167 mg de isoflavonoide. Trebuie sa stim insa ca sosul de soia ori uleiul de soia nu contin isoflavonoide. http://www.soyfoods.com/nutrition/isoflavonelevels.html

Soia poate scadea activitatea glandei tiroide deoarece continutul de fitati blocheaza asimilarea iodului si absorbtia hormonilor tiroidieni. Incetinirea functiei glandei tiroide la persoanele care mananca mai mult poate contribui la cresterea in greutate sau obezitate.

Sub forma de boabe intregi, soia are un continut foarte mare de fibre, insa multe produse din soia sunt atat de mult procesate industrial incat ajung sa piarda mult din continutul de fibre sanatoase. Soia poate fi o sursa excelenta de calciu ce variaza intre 80 si 750mg la portie, in functie de produsul de soia. Desi alimentele din soia contin oxalati si acid fitic (doua elemente care pot inhiba absorbtia de calciu), cantitatea de calciu din alimentele cu soia este foarte bine absorbita. Alimentele din soia sunt bogate in cupru si magneziu, dar si in vitaminele B, in special niacina, piridoxina si folacin. Boabele de soia contin multe substante fitochimice cunoscute sub denumirea de izoflavone, care, in opinia multor cercetatori, pot ajuta la prevenirea anumitor tipuri de cancer, la tratarea bolilor de inima sau imbunatatirea densitatii osoase.

Chiar daca sunteti un adept al produselor din soia, ca si in cazul altor alimente, nu trebuie sa considerati soia ca fiind un “aliment magic”. Soia trebuie integrata intr-un regim alimentar diversificat si echilibrat. Soia trebuie să fie consumata cu moderatie asa cum se intampla si in Asia. Cercetarile arata in mod clar faptul că soia este benefica pentru sanatate in special atunci cand este consumata sub forma de produse de soia fermentate (tofu, miso fermentat, sos de soia  (fermentat).

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Loboda si beneficiile ei

Loboda (Atriplex hortense L). Familia: Chenopodiaceae. Partea comestibila a lobodei sunt frunzele, care se folosesc mai ales la ciorbe, dar si la prepararea diferitor salate. Valoarea nutritiva: 90-92,3% apa, 7,7-10% substanta uscata, 0,6-0,7% zahar total, 0,18-0,21% aciditate totala titrabila, 1,7-1,8% saruri minerale, 42,4-55,1 mg vitamina C la 100 g produs proaspat. Loboda este o planta erbacee, anuala, cu inaltimea de 0,8-2 m. Loboda este grupata in trei categorii, in functie de culoarea frunzelor:

– rosie (Atriplex hortense f. rubra),

– galbena (Atriplex hortense f. lutea),

– verde (Atriplex hortense f. viridis).

Frunzele de la baza sunt late, triunghiulare, dintate pe margine, carnoase,catifelate si elastice, iar cele dispuse in varful tulpinii sunt mai inguste,triunghiular-alungite, cu marginea intreaga. Florile sunt hermafrodite, de culoare verde sau rosiatica. Fructele sunt pseudoachene rotund-turtite, de culoare galben-verzuie. Facultatea germinativa este scazuta, circa 25%, si se pastreaza doar 2 ani. Semintele sunt usoare, greutatea absoluta a 1000 seminte este de 4-6 grame. Loboda este o planta rezistenta la frig. Semintele germineaz la 20 grade C. Cultivata in conditii de temperaturi mai ridicate, frunzele isi pierd fragezimea. Loboda este una dintre speciile legumicole cel mai putin pretentioase la lumina. Ea da productii bune atat pe soluri insorite, cat si pe cele semiumbrite. In locurile umbrite, productia este mai scazuta. Loboda insamantata toamna tarziu, in ferestrele iernii sau primavara devreme da producţii bune, folosind numai rezervele de umiditate ale solului acumulate din topirea zapezilor. Aceasta planta suporta greu excesul de umiditate. In conditii de seceta, frunzele raman la dimensiuni mici si este foarte mult grabita apariţia tulpinilor florale, care raman tot de dimensiuni mici, dar formeaza muguri florali si infloresc intr-un timp scurt. Loboda se poate cultiva pe toate tipurile de sol, productii ridicate se pot obtine numai pe soluri fertile, bogate in humus, cu pH 6-7,5, usoare sau mijlocii.Loboda, fiind o planta care rasare primavara devreme si are o perioada scurta de vegetatie, se cultiva in sistemul culturilor succesive ca planta anterioară.Bune premergatoare sunt culturile prasitoare, fertilizate cu gunoi de grajd. Terenul se pregateste din toamna. Nu necesita conditii deosebite de lucrari. Loboda se cultiva numai prin semanat direct in camp. Se seamana in ferestrele iernii sau primavara foarte devreme. Se poate semana si toamna tarziu, astfel ca semintele sa nu germineze pana la venirea inghetului. Norma de semanat este de 8-10 kg samanta la ha. Se fac 1-2 irigari cu norme de 200-250 m3/ha. Se praseste de regula o singura data si asta numai daca este strict necesar, deoarece are o perioada de crestere scurta si buruienile nu prea apar in acea perioada intr-un interval asa de scurt. Dupa rasarirea plantelor, se face o fertilizare suplimentara cu 50 kg/ha de azot. Recoltarea se face manual, esalonat incepand din faza de plante cu cotiledoane pana cand acestea au 4-5 frunze in rozeta, prin smulgerea plantelor si valorificarea lor sub forma de legatura.

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ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE- SOLUTION FOR LIMITING POLLUTION AND POVERTY

The agriculture was and is, the present time, one of the main branches of economy of the Republic of Moldova, both though the level of work force involved in this sector, and through its weight ratio in the Gross Domestic Product. The agricultural system implement in the 70s -90s of the ages in the Republic of Moldova has led to  increase of agricultural production, due to the widespread use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides the  new methods of cultivation of plants and animals. Farmers have mostly promoted and promote the intensive agriculture, which leads to pollution of soil and water through excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides, of irrigation water improper from the qualitative and quantitative points of view, especially of the arable lands excessively picked through different works. In this manner, pollutants have accumulated in amounts that exceed the maximum allowable limits, both in soil, and in the surface and sub surface waters. Among these pollutants are nitrates, which in large amounts have harmful effects to human health.

Taking into account the aforementioned as well as the ecological situation created, also the scarcity of energy resources in agriculture, natural disasters and in particular the drought, the greater  need to put on the agenda to need of implement into practice the organic agriculture. The organic agriculture has a great contribution to a lasting economic development and play an important role in improving the quality of the environment, preservation of soil, improving the quality of water, biodiversity and nature protection.

Taking into account the vector of Moldova regarding accession to the European Union, it is known, that for countries that will integrate in this community, one of the measure imposed by EU is implementing the system of organic agriculture. The organic agriculture is a vital necessity for Moldova, not only to join the EU, but also an opportunity for farmers, because most of the ecologically  products can be export. Thus for Moldova, the organic agro-alimentary products and their commercialization constitute a real chance for  penetration of the foreign markets which are oversaturated with products of the conventional agriculture and support the lack of ecological products. The value added for the production and commercialization of the organic products, along with the reduction in expenditures from getting them, allow the increase of income accruing to rural communities for the purpose of solving the socio-economic problems for  villages.

In the context of agricultural policy stance towards the natural agriculture, in which the concept of the organic agriculture has a well-defined place, it is necessary to intensify the promotion of this segment of agriculture and broad information to agricultural workers and consumers, regarding the importance ,  role and benefits of green technologies and last but not least, the economic advantages, as well as those of improvement of the environment in which we live. In order to practice agriculture in harmony with nature, we must take into account both the biological techniques used and local conditions, adapting to the socio-economic realities as well as to the traditional methods-essential factors for achieving certain optimal results and long lasting. At the same time, it is necessary to note, that the organic agriculture is also a problem of education, in the spirit of respect for the laws of nature and knowing of traditions verified for centuries, and their connection with modern methods is aimed at maintaining and increasing the natural productive potential of the soil. The soil is probably one of the most important-and yet neglected-natural resources, being essential for life on Earth, as it feeds the plants, which in their turn provide food and oxygen to people and animals. Some studies have shown that the organic agriculture lead to increasing the numbers of beneficial organisms that live in the soil, which help to achieve high yields and healthy animals-and ultimately, to the health of the people. Some studies have shown that the organic agriculture produces fewer emissions of carbon dioxide and thus has an important role in reducing global warming.

Thus the organic agriculture is only possible as an integral system, unique, starting with the quality of soil, water, air and ending with the cultivation and processing technologies, and the promotion and development of this system of agriculture can be likely a landmark in the rural economy and make it viable by expanding the economic activities with high added value through the penetration of the places of work in the rural areas.

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Catina pentru sanatate

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Catina, regina imunitatii, numita „Ginsengul romanesc”, certificata ca un bun vaccin antigripal, datorita fructelor sale, ca niste bobite aurii, care se coc toamna, ne ofera un nesperat ajutor tuturor, indiferent de varsta sau afectiuni. Conform cercetarilor efectuate de specialisti, catina care creste in Romania are un continut chimic de exceptie, poate cel mai bogat din intreaga lume. Niciunde in lume nici varietatea naturala, nici soiurile ameliorate nu contin atat de multe vitamine, minerale, microelemente, flavonoizi si aminoacizi cat cele intalnite la nivelul catinei care creste , mai ales in zona subcarpatica.

Fructul de catina contine de doua ori mai multa vitamina C decat macesul si de 10 ori mai mult decat citricele, de asemenea, contine o cantitate de trei ori mai mare de vitamina E decat germenii de grau, de trei ori mai multa vitamina A decat morcovii si de 4 ori mai multe enzime, care protejeaza corpul de radicalii liberi, in comparatie cu ginsengul. In fructele coapte continutul de vitamina C depsșește 400-800 mg la 100 g suc proaspat. Alte vitamine prezente in fruct sunt A, B1, B2, B6, B9, E, K, P, F. Mai regasim celuloza, betacaroten (intr-un procent net superior celui din pulpa de morcov), microelemente ca fosfor, calciu, magneziu, potasiu, fier si sodiu, uleiuri complexe, aminoacizii esențiali, acizii grasi esentiali. Uleiul de catina este folosit in tratamentul ulcerului gastric si duodenal, diareei, urticariei si starilor alergice, maladiilor neuroendocrine, reumatismului, afectiunilor circulatorii si hepatice, alcoolismului, anemiei, asteniei si chiar stresului.Uleiul de catina ajuta la reglarea tranzitului intestinal, fiind de folos persoanelor care sufera de constipatie. Are un efect protector asupra gingiilor. Extractele din frunze si ramuri au actiune diuretica. Catina contine o diversitate de nutrienti care au grija de sanatate fiind recomandata si in situatiile cand dorim sa scapam de cateva kilograme. Acest fruct este printre putinele surse naturale de acizi grasi omega-7, care ne poate ajuta sa ramanem slabi. Uleiul de catina, presat la rece, incetineste imbatranirea pielii. Pe langa vitamina C, vitaminele E si A face din catina si uleiul extras din ea, cea mai buna solutie naturala pentru regenerarea pielii. Este potrivit pentru toate tipurile de ten, avand un puternic efect antirid. Datorita ingredientelor active din continutul sau, uleiul de catina presat la rece vindeca pielea de arsuri (inclusiv solare), rani, psoriazis, dermatite, eczeme, acnee, herpes.Vinul de catina poate fi considerat un remediu natural, deoarece ajuta organismul vitaminizandu-l, avand in acelasi timp si o actiune tonica. Iata cum se prepara corect catina cu miere: Adauga o parte de miere la trei parţi de fructe de catina. Dupa spalarea si zdrobirea fructelor de catina, adauga-le intr-un borcan pana ce se umple pe jumatate. Toarna miere peste ele pana la umplerea completa a borcanului. Inchide borcanul etans, apoi pastreaza-l la frigider. După o saptamana, incepe sa iei din acest amestec cu aroma deosebit de placuta cate o lingurita sau doua in fiecare dimineata, pe stomacul gol, timp de cel putin o luna, asta pentru a-ti creste imunitatea si pentru a avea o sanatate de fier. Precautii sau contraindicatii in consumul de catina nu exista.

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Lathyrus sativus and its benefits

            The Lathyrus sativus L. is part of the Fabaceae family. The people known it under various names: dinner, dental peas, cicericula, dentisor. It is a precious annual plant, which has a long history of culture. The species Sativus is widely cultivated. Lathyrus sativus is a valuable plant of culture, both using it and as a precursor. Lathyrus sativus is cultivate on about 500 thousand ha the globe. The areas large occupy it crop in India, Spain, Portugal, Near East, North Africa. It is used in human nutrition and animal feeding. Flour from the Lathyrus sativus is used (10%) for tasty bread. The berries are used up to mature, green and mature in the form of garner. It is use in animal feed as a green fodder, a fan, alone or mixed with cereals, and the grains are given as concentrated fodder. The Lathyrus sativus are also used to obtain high-quality glues used in aviation, textile, veneering, etc. The stem is in the muscle, branched, but non-resistant to fall. The leaves par pinnate with two narrow, lance late leaves, end with branched circle. The flowers are of violet color, rarely pink, blue, placed in racemic 2-3.

The fruit are a pod patty with two wings, containing 2-6 seeds, angular or flat, white, yellowish-yellow, variegated. Plant height is from 80-90 cm up to 150 cm. The plant has a pivotal, deep (120-125 cm) root with branches. The roots has nodosities that represent colonies which are filled with nitrogen fixation bacteria. The Lathyrus sativus plants have the capacity to accumulate in soil up to 100 kg of nitrogen from atmosphere. It also serves as a good liver for bee.The bitter Lathyrus sativus contain on average 24.5% protein; 53.5% non-added extractive substances; 2.1% fat; 4.3% cellulose, etc. Straw and chaff have a 7 to 10% protein content, representing a fairly valuable feed. After the protein content exceeds peas, beans and other legumes for beans. From pod of Lathyrus sativus, can obtain  casein can be obtained, its quality being close to casein of animal origi The green parts of the plant contain up to 800 mg of the vitamin C, carotene up to 22 mg percent. The plant also contain saponins, bitter substances, a small amount of alkaloids, flavonoids, trace elements: manganese, iron, copper, chromium, etc. The pod of chichling can only be used in the diet after boiling.

As a herb are use the field Lathyrus sativus, the spring lathyrus. The Lathyrus sativus has been studied in pharmacologically and clinically by the Tomsk Institute of Medicine, Russian Federation. The Lathyrus sativus is recommended for use of the healing of chronic bronchitis and against pneumonia. Alcohol-ready with Lathyrus sativus can be used in homeopathy. At the same time, in popular medicine, the Lathyrus sativus is used to fight diarrhea. It is also used the infusion of roots from Lathyrus sativus in the case of insomnia and for heart pain. The secondary effects were not observed.

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Health benefits of the cauliflower

The cauliflower (Brassica cauliflora) is an annual plant from the cruciferous family. It is cultivated around of the world and used both for its pleasant taste and for the important intake of vitamins and minerals it brings to the human body. The edible part of it is the capitulum, which is composed of a large number of sprout flowering and plentifully branched. The cauliflower is cultivated more in China and India, which are also the largest exporter of this product. The cauliflower is very popular in Italian and French cuisine at the time. Lately this plant occupies more and more areas.

The cauliflower contain 1.5-3% protein, 3.8% sugar and vitamins. After the amount of vitamin C, it overcome of  2-3 time the white cabbage. The daily requirement in vitamin C can be assured by eating only 50 g of cauliflower. The cauliflower also contain an big amount of vitamin B2, rich in iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, which a quality taste, and is easily assimilated by the human body. Due to  of the high nutritional value and reduced content of cellulose, the cauliflower it is especially recommended for stomach ill patients and for children food. Having a high amount vitamin C, cauliflower protect against polyarthritis, a form of rheumatoid arthritis present at two or more joint.

The cauliflower is one of the vegetable to be consumed as often as possible. It has a lot benefits for the human body, especially if it is consumed in a cruel condition. The  cauliflower contain active substances which  prevent cancer and other severe conditions. It is a unique vegetable with a high concentration of nutrients. The  cauliflower is rich in antioxidants and phytonutrients. It also contain calcium, which is found around cauliflower bouquets. It has an increased content of phosphorus, manganese, vitamin K, folic acid and vitamin B6. It also contain natural carbohydrates, proteins, beneficial fats and dietary fiber. The cauliflower contain omega 3 fatty acids, allicin and selenium. It has a low calorie content and is therefore ideal for those who want to lose weight. It is one of the vegetable that should be found frequently in women’s dishes because it has the ability to prevent many types of cancer commonly found among  represent of  beautiful sex. Studies have shown that this vegetable prevent breast cancer, ovarian cancer and other cancer commonly found among women, thanks to an active substance, Indole-3-carbinol.

Due to the high fiber content is  protect the colon, reducing the risk of colon cancer. For men, the same vegetable prevent prostate cancer. The cauliflower, frequently consumed, reduce the risk of heart attack and improve the health of the heart. Due to presence of vitamin K , cauliflower make have anti-inflammatory properties, so  because  has heart-related benefit while maintaining low cholesterol level

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Role of leguminous crops for converting conventional farming to organic

  The Republic of Moldova is situated in a geographic zone with extremely favorable climate and very fertile soil. This combination giver an enormous opportunity for the agricultural sector of the national economy that allows and achieve rich and high quality harvest avoid intensive application of non-organic chemicals and fertilizers. In this connection to obtain the high quality and cleaner products one role important has on organic agriculture. However organic agriculture has a major contribution to lasting economic development and also plays an important role to improving the condition of the environment, water quality and biodiversity.

The practice of many farmers demonstrated that switching from conventional agriculture to organic farming is not easy, because as a result of this conversion farmers may have losses. For reduce these losses it is necessary to make a slow transition to production of organic agriculture. According to the basic methods and principles of organic agriculture, uses of fertilizers and other soil improvers, pesticides, growth promoters, etc. is not allowed. Taking into consideration those mentioned during the conversion period an important role can be play the leguminous crops and perennial herbs. More several crops species a making the subject of this desideratum. This group includes the following crops: pea, bean, soybean, lentil, chickpea, broad bean, peanut, and from perennial herbs: alfalfa, sainfoin. The agro-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova are favorable for cultivation and expansion of the leguminous crops areas. The leguminous crops with helping of the rhizobia bacteria, which come in symbiosis with plants, they can transformation of atmospheric nitrogen in molecular nitrogen which it into an accessible form for plants. For example, on 1 ha soybean area can be accumulate about 100 kg. of nitrogen in year. The alfalfa crop can accumulate in average of 150-160 kg per ha of biological nitrogen, which is equivalent to 500 kg of ammonium nitrate. At the same time, it is necessary to mentioned that nitrogen, which is fixed by the rhizobia bacteria, is used for a longer period, comparative with nitrogen which used by the mineral fertilizers: 51% in the first year, 27% in the second and 22% three year for crops, which are sown after the leguminous crops for grains. The researcher Bob Rodale from Rodale Institute, Pennsylvania State, USA has been demonstrated that converting conventional farming to organic need to pass with leguminous crops. According by data the yield of maize which was obtained at the third year, after two years, where was sown leguminous crops, was higher compared with yield, where was used mineral fertilizers and pesticides.

            Analyzing the compartment of the structure of leguminous crops in Moldova we can mention the following: if about two decades ago the share of leguminous crops and perennial herbs in the structure of field crops constituted 8-12%, including 180-220 thousand ha of alfalfa and 80-100 thousand ha of pea, then in recent years the structure of the land sown with perennial herbs, especially alfalfa, has changed essentially. The area of perennial herbs decreased from 180-200 thousand ha to 30-35 thousand ha. The percentage of pea in structure of field crops declined 4-5 times. Currently the share of leguminous crops and perennial herbs (alfalfa, sainfoin), is about only 6 percent, including leguminous crops – only 4 percent. The countries with the advanced agriculture the share of perennial herbs (alfalfa, sainfoin) and leguminous crops is 20-30%. The share of leguminous crops for the pedo-climatic conditions of our country, should be 20-25 percent, including 10-13% of the alfalfa.

Thus, the increase of the leguminous crops areas can lead not only to breaking the chain of diseases and weeds, but also to diminish of the harvest losses by agricultural producers in the transition period from conventional agriculture to organic farming. The harmonious combination at the leguminous crops with the livestock sector and the processing industry can lead to create sustainable, environmentally friendly and with high-yield farming.

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Benefits of potatoes.

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a herbaceous plant of the family solanaceae. Potato are native from South America. They are cultivated more than 120 countries. But its spreading in some places has it own history. For example, in the forties of the nineteenth century the potato was cultivated almost in all Europe. In some regions of Russia it not was still recognized. Some people who did not have necessary knowledge spread rumors, as if they were the “apple of the devil,” and if they will plant him, he defiled the earth, and not will be bread had any more. But after shortly period through all the villages spread the news : all peasants are obligation to plant of the “apple of the devil.” So a ordered the Emperor. In this period in Russia, was Emperor Nikolay II, who was  nicknamed “Palkin”, from the Russian word ” палка” that is “stick”, because the soldiers guilty of any misdemeanor were beaten with such a cruelty that many of they were chosen with deadly wounds. They has decided to plant potato in Russia as well under the threat of the :” stick “.

In one of the day, was reported to Emperor : the ordered not was executed the peasants a met the representatives of the power with forks and poles. The peasants from Perm and those of the Veatca, Kazan and Orenburg a rebelled. In three districts of thegovernment of Saratov were troubles. Then the Emperor issued a new ordered : all the rebels should beaten and in handcuffs, but the worst should be put in the  handcuffs and after that sent in Siberia.

Neither the sticks and neither of ax of the executioner not convinced the peasants to plant of the potatoes. Instead, the new and fruitful varieties, which was obtained by scientists, were able to convince of the peasants to plant potatoes. When scientists people discovered that from the potato can be obtained starch, molasses and spirits without potatoes could not work either the textile factories, neither those of the spirit. This story brought us the potato and in our country.

Today the potato is recommended by modern medicine for use, it is healthy, nourishing, energetic, allowed to all those predisposed to fattening. It facilitate intestinal function, ulcers, it is healing. The potato contain: vitamin B; C, iron, fiber, magnesium, potassium. Thanks to Vitamin C, potato is one of the most powerful antioxidants, which has a tonic, anti-infective effect, increases the resistance of blood vessels, help in the formation of red blood cells and regulate of the level of blood sugar and cholesterol. The potato provide 12% of the recommended daily fiber requirement and 21% of the potassium to body. Potato contain only 85 kcal per at 100 gram, that is twice as low as other carbohydrates.

The juice which obtained from potato can heal  the arthritis, hepatitis, constipation, hemorrhoids, but  potato starch is an excellent anti-inflammatory for gastrointestinal diseases. Potato juice doesn’t have equal at treating to gastric acid and gastric ulcer. It is an antispasmodic, diuretic, emollient. Diet with potatoes can lower of the blood pressure without adding at weight, according to a recent study.

It should be mentioned that fries in oils are extremely harmful because they contain starch, and the fat burned around starch generates a strong neurotoxin and carcinogen substance called acryl amide. However the potato is a healthy vegetable, as mentioned above, only the way we choose to consume it can turn it into a low-quality, even harmful food

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Health Benefits of Horseradish

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) make part of the cruciferous family. Is multiannual plant, with green-tinted, large, ellipsoidal leaves of 60-80 cm. long. The roots are thick with numerous lateral and additional roots. The stem is erect, branched, the shoots appear in the second year,which have a height of 140-150 cm. The flowers are white and small, gathered in a raceme, have a pleasant smell, the seeds do not form. The fruit present a round capsule. Horseradish multiply on vegetative way, through parts of roots, by stems and terminal buds. The plant is resistant of colds and frost. Horseradish is originally from the countries of South east Europe. It has a large spread in the countries of Western Europe, North America, Canada. Spontaneously, the horseradish grow and grow in Caucasus and Siberia on the banks of the water basins. Horseradish is known as a precious crop and as a medicinal plant from ancient times. Horseradish plants are rich in various mineral salts (potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium etc., fats, ascorbic acid, carotene). In 100 g of fresh roots of horseradish are contain nearly 100-120 mg calcium, 0.8 mg% sodium, 560 mg potassium, 2.1 mg iron, 212 mg sulfur. Horseradish, also contain such of organic substances as glutamine, asparagine, arginine.

The juice from fresh roots contain ferment of lysocline, which has antibiotic qualities. If became decreasing the amount of this ferment in human body the resistance at infectious diseases also reduces. Presence of the phytoncide gives of the horseradish taste, and awaken appetite, and also improving the digestibility food of the body.  The content of bactericidal substances, make the widespread use of horseradish as a spice for cucumber, tomatoes and other vegetables.For food are use both the leaves and horseradish roots. The leaves are used as a spice for pickles and preserving of vegetables. Roots are used in cruel and preserved condition. The roots in fresh condition are successfully used for preparing spices for different meat dishes. Due to the precious curative qualities, horseradish infusions are used in the popular medicine from many countries to treat hydrolyses, gall bladder in case of stone’s formation, at chronic rheumatism, anemia, respiratory diseases, scurvy etc.

Horseradish has beneficial effects on the body. Due to content of the roots it do makes it very effective for treating rheumatic diseases and upper respiratory diseases. Horseradish is very rich in vitamins (especially C and B complex) and minerals, it contain natural antibiotics, enzymes, phytohormones, etc. The horseradish also work on the cause of pain caused by inflammation. Some of the substance what contain in horseradish have beneficial effects in blood circulation at peripheral areas. At the same time, horseradish sulphates improve the elasticity of cerebral and coronary blood vessels, thus reducing the risk of stroke or stroke. Horseradish is used instead of mustard sheets for compresses and headaches. The  horseradish is harvested begin at the end of October – early November. The leaves are mowed then remove and roots. Horseradish roots can be stored in bulbs, warehouses and piles. When preserving in piles their width will not exceed 1,5-2,0 m, height-1,8 m, and the length of not more than 3 m. The thickness of the horseradish layer in piles need be 20 cm, but the layer of sand-of 1.2-2.0 cm.

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