Soybean (Glycine max (L.). Merr) . Soybeans are primarily grown for their oil and protein content. Soybean is crop which is very rich in protein and fat, and it can satisfy the requirements for human consumption in food.
In comparison with other crops soybean differs by that it contains the chemical substances which have a great value.It has a large use for as humans food, as a forage crop, and in different technical purpose.
The soybean contain of protein which varies between 36-48% ,and fat 17-26% . After content of protein, soybean it is on the first place among leguminous plants, which is cultivate, and after content of fat it is surpassed only by rape and peanuts, which contain about 49-50% .
The soybean seeds and green mass also contain carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, ferments and other substances. Albumin of soybean is characterized by a high degree of dissolution in water. Soybean proteins contain all the amino acids strictly necessary for living organisms.In comparison with corn, soybean contain more than twice amino acids as lysine and a three times more tryptophan. The soybean protein has a high level digestibility (77-92%), of fat (94-100%), and carbohydrate (79-100%). After digestive qualities, soybeans approach those of meat and eggs. Soy is widely used for food industry. Soy flour is used for preparation of candies and cakes. Soy protein is used in the manufacturing of breads, cookies, crackers and other baked goods. Soy protein improves texture; holds moisture; creates cake richness; whitens bread; extends shelf-life; reduces breakage and crumbling; enhances nutrition; improves manufacturing, handling and machine ability; and improves mouth feel and overall quality as perceived by the consumer.
Soybean oil provides several specific health benefits. It’s a good source of nutrition, and it contains essential fatty acids and beta-sitosterol. Quality soy oil contains the B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, as well as vitamins A and E. Minerals in soy include calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur and phosphorus.
The high level of organic phosphorus, in the form of lecithin, vitamins and other substances curative, soy beans were appreciated and medicine. The produce of soybean is used in the pharmaceutical industry as raw material for making drugs, which increase the work capacity, treat neurasthenia, diabetes and other disease.