Chickpeas (Garbanzo beans) belonging to the Leguminous family, (Cicer arietinum L.,) is cultivated in the Mediterranean basin, in Asia and in Latin America. India occupies first place in the chickpeas production. The geographical distribution of chickpeas cultivation characterizes it as adapted to arid and semi-arid zones due to its drought resistance and ability to thrive on less fertile soils.
Chickpeas is crop which is rich in protein and fat, and used for humans food and forage crop .
There are many health benefits to eating chickpeas. Their high protein content is perfect for those wishing to replace red meat in their diet. Chickpeas are also high in fiber and help to lower cholesterol. Chickpeas are a great source of dietary fiber, folic acid, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium.
Today, chickpeas are used in a large variety of recipes. By themselves they can be used in salads, soups or stews, or as a quick snack. In India, where the chickpeas is known as “chana”, a large number of recipes are based on the chickpea. The chickpea is the main ingredient in many Middle Eastern dishes, like falafel.Chickpeas are used to make curries and are one of the most popular vegetarian foods in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and the UK.
Chickpeas has the following advantages:
– chickpeas contain protein, which varies between 18-24% ,and fat 6-8%, also it has the high quality taste and healing;
– plants grow in symbiosis with bacteria Rhizobium, which assimilates nitrogen from the air and increases soil fertility (equivalent dose size about 80-100 kg per ha);
-is drought resistant;
-is poorly attacked by diseases and pests, require less spraying ;
-can be grown in mixture with other plants, grasses and legumes;
-it is a good plant in crop rotation;
– sown in rows (15 cm),stopped soil erosion.
Chickpea roots can utilize soil moisture down to a depth of 80-100 cm, but the main root system is concentrated at 30-60 cm depth. Chickpea is harvested in June or July. Chickpea pods remain closed after they mature, so the seeds do not generally shed. However, in times of extreme drought and strong winds, pods may detach from the plant. Chickpea is harvested when the grain contains 12-13% moisture.