The mankind from ancient times is looking for the sources of protein and ways to solve this problem. In according by FAO data about 25% of the protein is not found for order to meet the growing needs of the earth’s globe population. In order to cover this important shortage of protein on the world scale the animal production is alone limited and closely related of the plant production, because for produce one 1 kg of animal protein is necessary of 10 kg of vegetable protein. The capacity of transformation is very small and therefore of vegetable protein is increasingly used in human and animal nutrition.
More several plant species a doing the subject of this desideratum but soybean has a longer dominating on the global protein market. Namely soybean is the plant which provide at the quantitative and qualitative level superior and at the same time economically by essential nutrients of animal nutrition. Soybean doing part of the exceptionally valuable crop both of point of view of the food but on the feed or raw material for industry and agriculture. The nutritional value of soybean is given of the content and quality of the protein. Its protein are very similar with those of animal origin soybean emerging as the “plant of the future” capable of covering the world’s protein deficit. However an extraordinary importance is uses of those precious crop the seeds which contain 35-43% protein, 18-27% oil, 22-35% carbohydrates and impressive amount of vitamins and mineral salts. Currently the soybean are grown in most of countries, however in recent years around 90% of the production is concentrated in just a few countries: the United States (33.06%), Brazil (22%), Argentina (16% ), China (10%) and India (9%). Its obvious that among the largest producers by the world of soybean, there are no European countries. In Europe the soybean areas are account for about two per cent of the world production. In the 2014 the soybean surfaces were about 850 thousand hectares. Annual requirement in European Union (EU) of the soybean is about 5 million tones of genetically unmodified but only 50 percent can be received from European production. EU countries – Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Hungary have the greatest soybean growth potential. Almost 15% of Europe’s annual consumption is non-GM soybean because Europe produce only about 2,5 million tones.
In the EU the legislatives-normative framework for agriculture is set by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). To secure of the resource European of the vegetable protein from soybean genetically unmodified through actions to stimulate and growth of areas cultivated in the Danube basin and adjacent areas in Europe. In 2012 was created the Danube Soja Association which is an independent, international, non-profit for diverse beneficiaries, based in Vienna. The purpose of this association is to make her members have a succeed in their work. Thus cultivation of soybean crop offer an opportunity attractive to meet the new Common Agricultural Policy requirements for ecological interest areas.
The agro-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova are favorable for cultivation and expansion of the soybean surfaces. The data a convincing us because the areas occupied with this crop in the past was considerable. The interest for soybean in Bessarabia until the war increased more after 1935, when appeared a number of foreign companies. In the 30s – 40s of last century soybean was called “golden from the soil” being one of the main food crop by the world including Moldova. These societies had special people through villages who concluding contracts with the peasants providing them with necessary instructions in advance concerning of technologies of growing and also supplied the seed conditional, varieties in according by the pedoclimatic conditions. So in 1939 the area of soybean cultivated reached 54.5 thousand hectares but in 1940 – 68389 hectares. In 1950-1953 soybean areas had occupied in Moldova about 50-62 thousand hectares. However due the fact that not was elaboration one the scientific technology the harvested per hectare of this crop continue to remain low and later the areas for cultivation were diminished. In the 1972-1974, for example the soybean were cultivated only on 2-3 thousand hectares. But later the interest in this crop as a source of high quality protein has begun to grow. The further increasing of livestock productivity has largely depended on solving the problem of protein deficiency in feed rations of animals. Preliminary calculations have demonstrated the need to soybean cultivation which serves as an important source for providing an animal feed with fodder protein.
Soybean is one of the oldest crop cultivated by human. In Europe and the USA the soybean has been brought from China, where the traditions of cultivating this crop a listing in centuries. Until recently this crop was used only as a animal feed throughout the world. In the Republic of Moldova the role soybean has remained the same so far. Currently the soybeans’ used everywhere to extract the protein and its derivatives, for produce substitutes of animal and vegetal food. Soybean composition is exceptionally rich in multifunctional and quality protein has enabled to development of many successful protein ingredients which are use in the human consumption.
As was mentioned the natural conditions of soil and climate the heat and light regimes in all areas of Republic of Moldova are suitable for soybean cultivation. The limiting factor for obtaining of soybean cropping is the soil moisture in especially which during the flowering, formation and the filling of the grain. The experiences which were conducted of the many years and practice of production demonstrated that the northern and central area of the Republic of Moldova is quite favorable for soybean cultivation and for obtaining of the high yields on non-irrigated land.
Over the years the soybean areas in Moldova had different fluctuations. In period of 1988-1989 the soybean surfaces reached at 40 thousand hectares. In the 1996-1997 the soybean areas were decreased drastically reaching at 3-4 thousand hectares.
The causes which led to the reduction of soybean surfaces:
-breaching of the technological discipline at cultivation of this crop including the location of soybean after the unfavorable precursors, sowing in the late term, insufficient fertilization, the lack of effective weed control, the harvest losses because are used the combines for harvested which are morally and physically (up to 15 -20 percent);
-does not paying sufficient attention to processing of raw materials and use of processed products for obtaining a wide range of food products.
In order to obtain one expected yield the soybean producers have an important role in respecting of soybean cultivation technologies. To increasing of the volume of soybean production is needed support from the state. For example, in the Republic of Croatia soybean producers are benefited from state subsidies of up to 280 euro per hectare. In the Republic of Serbia those who cultivate OF soybean receiving subsidies of up to 130 euro per hectare. Given that the soybean is an important economic crop the support for soybean producers by the state could be lead to increasing the production volumes. Also will be ensuring the internal market and the full utilization the available capacities of the processing and export industries.
In the last 8-10 years evolution of the soybean surfaces in the Republic of Moldova marked an obvious increase. For example, in 2006 the area of soybean cultivated was amounted about 56 thousand hectares but in the 2010-2012 the soybean area reached by 59-60 thousand hectares.
The volume of soybean production stability and quality of production as with any other crop depend not only of the cultivation level but also of the varieties which cultivate. To correct choice of soybean varieties for sowing there are some several important factors that need to take into consideration as they can directly affect production potential and profitability the soybean. The maximum production potential in particular of one soybean variety is genetically determined and can be only achieved by appropriate management and appropriate environmental conditions. The correct choice of soybean varieties need be based on productivity, production stability, precocity, drooping resistance, pod dehiscence and quality of harvesting.
The obtaining of the high yield by insignificant fluctuations over the years were largely dependent of the introduction the new varieties for cultivation with superior production capacities endowed with characteristics of resistance at the factors which limiting it. The soybean yield per hectare in 2013 was 1.7 tons at hectare but in 2014 the yield per hectare of soybean reached 2.1 tons.
The soybean between leguminous plants has the highest requirements for nitrogen. If will be doing the seed inoculation procedure properly that the significant amounts of nitrogen will be procured from atmospheric air. The nitrogen biological fixation depend of the growing conditions and it can providing till 50-70% from total quantity requirement of the nitrogen for soybean. The remainder of the requirement of nitrogen for soybean is provide by the mineralization of the organic matter from the soil or from the nitrogen which remaining from the precursor crop. The amount of the nitrogen accumulate of soybean per hectare: 118-120 kg, that is equivalent about 300-350 kg the of ammonium nitrate. In the current conditions when are reduction the possibilities of buying a mineral fertilizers, pesticides and other preparations, need given more importance of soybean – universal and multiplicative crop, efficient in economic, financial and ecological term, being at the same time recognized everywhere as a strategic import-export crop.
In this context grown interest more farmers, leaders of the agricultural formations towards this strategic crop. According the experiences if all the technological elements to growing of soybean are respected the soybean can be more productive of 2-3 time.
Taking into consideration the importance of this crop for livestock sector need elaborate one program for soybean production and processing. The purpose of this program need being to extending of the soybean surfaces till 120-150 thousand hectares for increasing volumes of soybean production, process and use finished products and also produce the protein and its derivatives. This program should provide for a number of organizational, financial and technical-material measures. In this way we will be able to ensure, first and foremost the needs of the internal market with the prospect of obtaining and competitive products for the European market. We think that it will stabilize of the soybean production and industrial process, where there will be a demand for constant raw material, which will condition and determine the market for soybean producers.