Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) make part of the cruciferous family. Is multiannual plant, with green-tinted, large, ellipsoidal leaves of 60-80 cm. long. The roots are thick with numerous lateral and additional roots. The stem is erect, branched, the shoots appear in the second year,which have a height of 140-150 cm. The flowers are white and small, gathered in a raceme, have a pleasant smell, the seeds do not form. The fruit present a round capsule. Horseradish multiply on vegetative way, through parts of roots, by stems and terminal buds. The plant is resistant of colds and frost. Horseradish is originally from the countries of South east Europe. It has a large spread in the countries of Western Europe, North America, Canada. Spontaneously, the horseradish grow and grow in Caucasus and Siberia on the banks of the water basins. Horseradish is known as a precious crop and as a medicinal plant from ancient times. Horseradish plants are rich in various mineral salts (potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium etc., fats, ascorbic acid, carotene). In 100 g of fresh roots of horseradish are contain nearly 100-120 mg calcium, 0.8 mg% sodium, 560 mg potassium, 2.1 mg iron, 212 mg sulfur. Horseradish, also contain such of organic substances as glutamine, asparagine, arginine.
The juice from fresh roots contain ferment of lysocline, which has antibiotic qualities. If became decreasing the amount of this ferment in human body the resistance at infectious diseases also reduces. Presence of the phytoncide gives of the horseradish taste, and awaken appetite, and also improving the digestibility food of the body. The content of bactericidal substances, make the widespread use of horseradish as a spice for cucumber, tomatoes and other vegetables.For food are use both the leaves and horseradish roots. The leaves are used as a spice for pickles and preserving of vegetables. Roots are used in cruel and preserved condition. The roots in fresh condition are successfully used for preparing spices for different meat dishes. Due to the precious curative qualities, horseradish infusions are used in the popular medicine from many countries to treat hydrolyses, gall bladder in case of stone’s formation, at chronic rheumatism, anemia, respiratory diseases, scurvy etc.
Horseradish has beneficial effects on the body. Due to content of the roots it do makes it very effective for treating rheumatic diseases and upper respiratory diseases. Horseradish is very rich in vitamins (especially C and B complex) and minerals, it contain natural antibiotics, enzymes, phytohormones, etc. The horseradish also work on the cause of pain caused by inflammation. Some of the substance what contain in horseradish have beneficial effects in blood circulation at peripheral areas. At the same time, horseradish sulphates improve the elasticity of cerebral and coronary blood vessels, thus reducing the risk of stroke or stroke. Horseradish is used instead of mustard sheets for compresses and headaches. The horseradish is harvested begin at the end of October – early November. The leaves are mowed then remove and roots. Horseradish roots can be stored in bulbs, warehouses and piles. When preserving in piles their width will not exceed 1,5-2,0 m, height-1,8 m, and the length of not more than 3 m. The thickness of the horseradish layer in piles need be 20 cm, but the layer of sand-of 1.2-2.0 cm.