ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE- SOLUTION FOR LIMITING POLLUTION AND POVERTY

The agriculture was and is, the present time, one of the main branches of economy of the Republic of Moldova, both though the level of work force involved in this sector, and through its weight ratio in the Gross Domestic Product. The agricultural system implement in the 70s -90s of the ages in the Republic of Moldova has led to  increase of agricultural production, due to the widespread use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides the  new methods of cultivation of plants and animals. Farmers have mostly promoted and promote the intensive agriculture, which leads to pollution of soil and water through excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides, of irrigation water improper from the qualitative and quantitative points of view, especially of the arable lands excessively picked through different works. In this manner, pollutants have accumulated in amounts that exceed the maximum allowable limits, both in soil, and in the surface and sub surface waters. Among these pollutants are nitrates, which in large amounts have harmful effects to human health.

Taking into account the aforementioned as well as the ecological situation created, also the scarcity of energy resources in agriculture, natural disasters and in particular the drought, the greater  need to put on the agenda to need of implement into practice the organic agriculture. The organic agriculture has a great contribution to a lasting economic development and play an important role in improving the quality of the environment, preservation of soil, improving the quality of water, biodiversity and nature protection.

Taking into account the vector of Moldova regarding accession to the European Union, it is known, that for countries that will integrate in this community, one of the measure imposed by EU is implementing the system of organic agriculture. The organic agriculture is a vital necessity for Moldova, not only to join the EU, but also an opportunity for farmers, because most of the ecologically  products can be export. Thus for Moldova, the organic agro-alimentary products and their commercialization constitute a real chance for  penetration of the foreign markets which are oversaturated with products of the conventional agriculture and support the lack of ecological products. The value added for the production and commercialization of the organic products, along with the reduction in expenditures from getting them, allow the increase of income accruing to rural communities for the purpose of solving the socio-economic problems for  villages.

In the context of agricultural policy stance towards the natural agriculture, in which the concept of the organic agriculture has a well-defined place, it is necessary to intensify the promotion of this segment of agriculture and broad information to agricultural workers and consumers, regarding the importance ,  role and benefits of green technologies and last but not least, the economic advantages, as well as those of improvement of the environment in which we live. In order to practice agriculture in harmony with nature, we must take into account both the biological techniques used and local conditions, adapting to the socio-economic realities as well as to the traditional methods-essential factors for achieving certain optimal results and long lasting. At the same time, it is necessary to note, that the organic agriculture is also a problem of education, in the spirit of respect for the laws of nature and knowing of traditions verified for centuries, and their connection with modern methods is aimed at maintaining and increasing the natural productive potential of the soil. The soil is probably one of the most important-and yet neglected-natural resources, being essential for life on Earth, as it feeds the plants, which in their turn provide food and oxygen to people and animals. Some studies have shown that the organic agriculture lead to increasing the numbers of beneficial organisms that live in the soil, which help to achieve high yields and healthy animals-and ultimately, to the health of the people. Some studies have shown that the organic agriculture produces fewer emissions of carbon dioxide and thus has an important role in reducing global warming.

Thus the organic agriculture is only possible as an integral system, unique, starting with the quality of soil, water, air and ending with the cultivation and processing technologies, and the promotion and development of this system of agriculture can be likely a landmark in the rural economy and make it viable by expanding the economic activities with high added value through the penetration of the places of work in the rural areas.

This entry was posted in Agricultura ecologica, English. Bookmark the permalink.