Evolution of the soybean areas in the Republic of Moldova

The mankind from ancient times is looking for the sources of protein and ways to solve this problem. In according by FAO data about 25% of the protein is not found for order to meet the growing needs of the earth’s globe population. In order to cover this important shortage of protein on the  world scale the animal production is alone limited and closely related of the plant production, because for produce one 1 kg of animal protein is necessary of 10 kg of vegetable protein. The capacity of transformation is very small and therefore of vegetable protein is increasingly used in human and animal nutrition.

More several plant species a doing the subject of this desideratum but soybean has a longer dominating on the global protein market. Namely soybean is the plant which provide at the quantitative and qualitative level superior and at the same time economically by essential nutrients of animal nutrition. Soybean doing part of the exceptionally valuable crop both of point of view of the food but on the feed or raw material for industry and agriculture. The nutritional value of soybean is given of the content and quality of the protein. Its protein are very similar with those of animal origin soybean emerging as the “plant of the future” capable of covering the world’s protein deficit. However an extraordinary importance is uses of those precious crop the seeds which contain 35-43% protein, 18-27% oil, 22-35% carbohydrates and impressive amount of vitamins and mineral salts. Currently the soybean are grown in most of countries, however in recent years around 90% of the production is concentrated in just a few countries: the United States (33.06%), Brazil (22%), Argentina (16% ), China (10%) and India (9%). Its obvious that among the largest producers by the world of soybean, there are no European countries. In Europe the soybean areas are account for about two per cent of the world production. In the 2014 the soybean surfaces were about 850 thousand hectares. Annual requirement in European Union (EU) of the soybean is about 5 million tones of genetically unmodified but only 50 percent can be received from European production. EU countries – Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Hungary have the greatest soybean growth potential. Almost 15% of Europe’s annual consumption is non-GM soybean because Europe produce only about 2,5 million tones.

In the EU the legislatives-normative framework for agriculture is set by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). To secure of the resource European of the vegetable protein from soybean genetically unmodified through actions to stimulate and growth of areas cultivated in the Danube basin and adjacent areas in Europe. In 2012 was created the Danube Soja Association which is an independent, international, non-profit for diverse beneficiaries, based in Vienna. The purpose of this association is to make her members have a succeed in their work. Thus cultivation of soybean crop offer an opportunity attractive to meet the new Common Agricultural Policy requirements for ecological interest areas.

The agro-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova are favorable for cultivation and expansion of the soybean surfaces. The data a convincing us because the areas occupied with this crop in the past was considerable. The interest for soybean in Bessarabia until the war increased more after 1935, when appeared a number of foreign companies. In the 30s – 40s of last century soybean was called “golden from the soil” being one of the main food crop by the world including Moldova. These societies had special people through villages who concluding contracts with the peasants providing them with necessary instructions in advance concerning of technologies of growing and also supplied the seed conditional, varieties in according by the pedoclimatic conditions. So in 1939 the area of soybean cultivated reached 54.5 thousand hectares but in 1940 – 68389 hectares. In 1950-1953 soybean areas had occupied in Moldova about 50-62 thousand hectares. However due the fact that not was elaboration one the scientific technology the harvested per hectare of this crop continue to remain low and later the areas for cultivation were diminished. In the 1972-1974, for example the soybean were cultivated only on 2-3 thousand hectares. But later the interest in this crop as a source of high quality protein has begun to grow. The further increasing of livestock productivity has largely depended on solving the problem of protein deficiency in feed rations of animals. Preliminary calculations have demonstrated the need to soybean cultivation which serves as an important source for providing an animal feed with fodder protein.

Soybean is one of the oldest crop cultivated by human. In Europe and the USA the soybean has been brought from China, where the traditions of cultivating this crop a listing in centuries. Until recently this crop was used only as a animal feed throughout the world. In the Republic of Moldova the role soybean has remained the same so far. Currently the soybeans’ used everywhere to extract the protein and its derivatives, for produce substitutes of animal and vegetal food. Soybean composition is exceptionally rich in multifunctional and quality protein has enabled to development of many successful protein ingredients which are use in the human consumption.

As was mentioned the natural conditions of soil and climate the heat and light regimes in all areas of Republic of Moldova are suitable for soybean cultivation. The limiting factor for obtaining of soybean cropping is the soil moisture in especially which during the flowering, formation and the filling of the grain. The experiences which were conducted of the many years and practice of production demonstrated that the northern and central area of the Republic of Moldova is quite favorable for soybean cultivation and for obtaining of the high yields on non-irrigated land.

Over the years the soybean areas in Moldova had different fluctuations. In period of 1988-1989 the soybean surfaces reached at 40 thousand hectares. In the 1996-1997 the soybean areas were decreased drastically reaching at 3-4 thousand hectares.

The causes which led to the reduction of soybean surfaces:

-breaching of the technological discipline at cultivation of this crop including the location of soybean after the unfavorable precursors, sowing in the late term, insufficient fertilization, the lack of effective weed control, the harvest losses because are used the combines for harvested which are morally and physically (up to 15 -20 percent);

-does not paying sufficient attention to processing of raw materials and use of processed products for obtaining a wide range of food products.

In order to obtain one expected yield the soybean producers have an important role in respecting of soybean cultivation technologies. To increasing of the volume of soybean production is needed support from the state. For example, in the Republic of Croatia soybean producers are benefited from state subsidies of up to 280 euro per hectare. In the Republic of Serbia those who cultivate  OF soybean receiving subsidies of up to 130 euro per hectare. Given that the soybean is an important economic crop the support for soybean producers by the state could be lead to increasing the production volumes. Also will be ensuring the internal market and the full utilization the available capacities of the processing and export industries.

In the last 8-10 years evolution of the soybean surfaces in the Republic of Moldova marked an obvious increase. For example, in 2006 the area of soybean cultivated was amounted about 56 thousand hectares but  in the 2010-2012 the soybean area reached by 59-60 thousand hectares.

The volume of soybean production stability and quality of production as with any other crop depend not only of the cultivation level but also of the varieties which cultivate. To correct choice of soybean varieties for sowing there are some several important factors that need to take into consideration as they can directly affect production potential and profitability the soybean. The maximum production potential in particular of one soybean variety is genetically determined and can be only achieved by appropriate management and appropriate environmental conditions. The correct choice of soybean varieties need be based on productivity, production stability, precocity, drooping resistance, pod dehiscence and quality of harvesting.

The obtaining of the high yield by insignificant fluctuations over the years were largely dependent of the introduction the new varieties for cultivation with superior production capacities endowed with characteristics of resistance at the factors which limiting it. The soybean yield per hectare in 2013 was 1.7 tons at hectare but in 2014 the yield per hectare of soybean reached 2.1 tons.

The soybean between leguminous plants has the highest requirements for nitrogen. If will be doing the seed inoculation procedure properly that the significant amounts of nitrogen will be procured from atmospheric air. The nitrogen biological fixation depend of the growing conditions and it can providing till 50-70% from total quantity requirement of the nitrogen for soybean. The remainder of the requirement of nitrogen for soybean is provide by the mineralization of the organic matter from the soil or from the nitrogen which remaining from the precursor crop. The amount of the nitrogen accumulate of soybean per hectare: 118-120 kg, that is equivalent about 300-350 kg the of ammonium nitrate. In the current conditions when are reduction the possibilities of buying a mineral fertilizers, pesticides and other preparations, need given more importance of soybean – universal and multiplicative crop, efficient in economic, financial and ecological term, being at the same time recognized everywhere as a strategic import-export crop.

In this context grown interest more farmers, leaders of the agricultural formations towards this strategic crop. According the experiences if all the technological elements to growing of soybean are respected the soybean can be more productive of 2-3 time.

Taking into consideration the importance of this crop for livestock sector need elaborate one program for soybean production and processing. The purpose of this program need being to extending of the soybean surfaces till 120-150 thousand hectares for increasing volumes of soybean production, process and use finished products and also produce the protein and its derivatives. This program should provide for a number of organizational, financial and technical-material measures. In this way we will be able to ensure, first and foremost the needs of the internal market with the prospect of obtaining and competitive products for the European market. We think that it will stabilize of the soybean production and industrial process, where there will be a demand for constant raw material, which will condition and determine the market for soybean producers.

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Broad bean – food plant

The broad bean – Vicia faba (L), is part from family Fabaceae, herbaceous, annual, autogamous, leguminous plant, with therapeutics value, originating from the Mediterranean basin. This vegetable is grown and consumed since the Bronze Age. The broad bean did not go unnoticed even in Rome, to local people even using it to make bread mixed with wheat. The broad bean was appreciated as a food plant even and antiquity by Egyptians, Jews, Greeks. In fact, the great mathematician Pythagoras recommend that his disciples due to of his properties.

The broad bean which a no matured is used in food, contain more protein than green peas and green beans. It contain 32-37% of protein, 50-60% of carbohydrates, 2.2% of fat, also carotene (0.22 mg) and ascorbic acid (33 mg). Are uses also mature broad bean, for soup or stifled. The seeds contain also cellulose, mineral salts of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, magnesium, small amounts of vitamins A, B, B2, C. The green pastes contain water, proteins, fats, unassisted extractive substances, cellulose, vitamins B, B2, C and have an energy value of 101 kcal per 100 g.

The broad bean look very good with peas, having brown beans with brownish-red. The broad bean can be decortificated and eaten raw, with a little salt, because young beans contain a lot of vitamins A, B, C, which suits any stomach been as sensitive. The broad bean which was dry, after maceration in the water, can be prepare the soups and pizzas, rich in iron and sulfur.

Was discovered of the curative principles of the broad bean and has put him on the list of consumed dried vegetable seeds, after that his place was vertiginously approached of positions of forehead, along with dried peas and beans. Tea of broad bean made to help for gout, even old rheumatism, joint pain, urinary sand or gall bladder. The strains, leaves, flowers and pods have a diuretic and sedative action. Cures with Vicia faba are recommended for the treatment of urinary tract disorders, nephritic colitis, renal lithiasis, inflammation of the prostate, rheumatism. Also are used parts of the plant or the ashes, which get resulting from the burning of the stems and of pods

Broad bean is not pretentious to the soil, but it prefers the wet soil. It grow well on sectors with a south exposure. The broad bean is sown the open field very early, between March 10 and April 10. The seeds begin to germinate at 6 degrees, the plants support of the frosts up to minus 4 degrees. Before sowing the seeds soak for 2 hours (no longer because they can rot), dipping them into the water, because is necessary to soften easily their coating. The broad bean does not have high demands for predecessor plants. The best productions are getting after potatoes, beets, corn or other crop which leave field clean without weeds. It sown in rows of widths with 35-40 cm at depth of 6-7 cm. The care method of broad bean is analogous to that of the bean. On small surfaces for high-caliber plants, are put high stakes to which bind the plants. The low plants do not need to be tied. Harvesting of the broad bean begin about July 1-10, selectively collected every 5-10 days.

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Bilberry and its benefits

Bilberry (Vaccinam myrtillus L.),is part from Eficaceae family is spread in the Nordic hemisphere, Montana area of Europe, Asia, North America. He prefer places with spruce, starting from the lower limit of spruce, reaching the alpine area.

Bilberry is a shrub with superficial root very dense interlaced like a passage bush, without absorbent hair. The stem is very branched, of green color, up to 50 cm. The leaves are alternate, falling, up to 3 cm long, and width up to 2 cm, with short petiole, oval or elliptical limb, acute peak.

Flowers are solitary, short pedicles, nuts, showing a persistent calyx with the ovary. The fruit is a dull, blue or almost black with a purple-purple juice, sweet, sour and aromatic taste. Both the leaves and the fruit are used. The leaves, with the rich content of arbutin, are the most valuable product that can be harvested from this species. It also contains sufficient amounts of condensed nucleated tanning compounds. Fruits are edible rich in coloring matter. Can be used fresh, frozen or dried. Fruits of bilberry contain: water, sugars, protein, organic acids, pectin compounds, vitamins (A, P, B, E), mineral salts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, etc. The leaves contain: triterpene, oleanolic acid, horseradish acid, beta-amyrina, phytosterols, glucosides, benzoic acid, quinic acid, flavonoids, evercitin free and glucoside, resins, mucilage, mineral salts and sugars.

Bilberry leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhea, gastrointestinal, catarrh, as urinary antiseptic and slightly diuretic, as an adjunct in the treatment of diabete. It enters in the composition of the antiscrerous feathers. Bilberry anthocyans have a beneficial effect on microcirculation increase capillary resistance, diminish their permeability, have antihemorrhagic effect on capillary permeability disorders, venereal diseases. It is recommended for diabetic microangiopathy. In ophthalmology, it has a favorable effect on retinal pigment regeneration resulting in increased visual acuity and improvement of hemeralopia. In the fight against diarrhea, are used dry fruits, because the fresh ones have an irritant effect, which cause by the acid ballast which gives them purgative properties. They also have antibacterial action in the gut.

In popular medicine the dried fruits or macerated in brandy are used against diarrhea as well as dried branches with leaves, which are used for pain stomach cramps, chest and heart disease.

Multiplication of the bilberry can be achieve through rooting the lignified or green and also through seedlings and separating butashi, methods known in agricultural practice. Are planted butashi with roots or parts of old bushes at a distance of 2×1 m in holes of 30x30x30 cm. For each bushes will added 4-5 kg of well fermented manure .

The leaves are collected from the end of the July to September. Drying of the leaves can be done through artificial dryers at the temperature of 35-40 degrees Celsius. From 6-9 kg of green branches you can get 1 kg of dried leaves. Leaves are harvested in August. These are detached from the branches by hand or devices in the form of combs, the spaces between the teeth being smaller than their diameter. The cleaning of impurities is usually done by putting them in dishes with water, removing all impurities that float. After they at air-dried, the fruits will be dried further in heated rooms.

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Evoluția suprafețelor cultivate cu soia în Republica Moldova

Omenirea din cele mai vechi timpuri este în căutarea surselor de proteină şi căilor de soluţionare a acestei probleme Întru asigurarea necesităţilor în creştere a populaţiei globului pământesc, conform datelor FAO nu se ajung cca 25% de proteine. Pentru a acoperi acest deficit important de proteină pe scară mondială, producţia animală, singură este limitată şi strâns legată de producţia vegetală, deoarece pentru a produce 1 kg de proteine animale este necesar de 10 kg de proteine vegetale. Randamentul transformării este foarte mic şi de aceea proteinele de origine vegetală sunt din ce în ce mai mult folosite în alimentaţia omului şi a animalelor.

Mai multe specii de plante fac obiectul acestui deziderat, însă soia de foarte mult timp domină piaţa mondială a proteinelor. Anume soia este planta,care asigură la nivel cantitativ şi calitativ superior, şi în acelaşi timp economic cu substanţe nutritive necesare în alimentaţia animalelor. Soia face parte din culturile excepţional de valoroase atât din punct de vedere alimentar, furajer sau materie primă pentru industrie cât şi agronomic. Valoarea nutritivă deosebită a boabelor de soia este dată de conţinutul şi calitatea proteinelor. Proteinele ei sunt foarte asemănătoare celor de origine animalieră,soia apărând ca „planta viitorului” capabilă să acopere deficitul proteic mondial. În legătură cu aceasta o importanţă deosebită capătă utilizarea acestea culturi preţioase, seminţele căreia conţin 35-43% proteine şi 18-27% ulei,22-35% hidraţi de carbon, o cantitate impunătoare de vitamine şi săruri minerale.

Actualmente soia se cultivă în majoritatea ţărilor, însă cu toate acestea, în ultimii ani, aproximativ 90% din producţie este concentrată doar în câteva ţări: Statele Unite (33,06%), Brazilia (22%), Argentina (16%), China (10% ) şi India (9%).Este evident că printre cei mai mari producători din lume nu există ţări europene. În Europa, suprafeţele ocupate cu soia sunt aproximativ două procente din producţia mondială. În 2014  suprafeţele cu soia au fost de cca  850 mii hectare.Din necesarul anual de 5 milioane de tone de soia nemodificată genetic, doar 50 la sută poate fi asigurată din producţia europeană. Ţările din Uniunea Europeană (UE)- România, Bulgaria, Croaţia şi Ungaria au cel mai mare potenţial de creştere a suprafeţelor cu soia. Aproape 15% din consumul anual a ţărilor din Europa reprezintă soia nemodificată genetic, deoarece Europa produce doar cca 2,5 milioane de tone.

În UE cadrul legislativ-normativ pentru agricultură este stabilit de catre Politica Agricolă Comună (PAC). Pentru securizarea resursei europene de proteină vegetală din soia nemodificată genetic prin actiuni de stimulare a creşterii suprafeţelor cultivate in bazinul dunărean şi zonele adiacente din Europa în anul 2012 a fost creată asociatia Danube Soja, care este o asociaţie independentă, internaţională, non-profit, pentru beneficiari foarte diverşi, cu sediul la Viena. Scopul acestei asociaţiei este de ai face pe membrii ei să aibă succes in munca lor. Astfel, cultivarea boabelor de soia oferă o oportunitate atractivă pentru a indeplini noile cerinte ale PAC pentru zonele de interes ecologic.

Condiţiile agroclimatice ale Republicii Moldova sunt favorabile pentru cultivarea şi extinderea suprafeţelor cu soia, fapt de care ne conving datele, că pe timpuri suprafeţele ocupate cu această cultură au fost considerabile. Interesul faţă de soia în Basarabia de până la război a crescut după anul 1935, când au apărut un şir de societăţi acţionare străine. În anii 30 – 40 ai secolului trecut soia era numită „aurul din sol”, fiind una din principalele culturi alimentare din lume, inclusiv şi în Moldova. Aceste societăţi aveau oameni speciali prin sate, care încheiau contracte cu ţăranii, le ofereau în prealabil instrucţiuni necesare referitoare la agrotehnică, îi aprovizionau cu sămânţă condiţionată şi de soi în corespundere cu condiţiile pedoclimaterice. Astfel, în anul 1939 suprafaţa cultivată cu soia a ajuns până la 54,5 mii hectare, iar în 1940 – 68389 de hectare. În anul 1950-1953 semănăturile de soia ocupau în Moldova cca 50-62 mii de hectare. Totuşi, din cauza că nu era elaborată o tehnologie ştiinţifică de cultivare, recoltele la hectar a acestei culturi continuau să rămână joase, iar mai târziu suprafeţele pentru cultivarea ei au fost micşorate. În anii 1972-1974, bunăoară soia a fost cultivată doar pe 2-3 mii de hectare. Însă mai târziu interesul faţă de această cultură ca sursă de proteină de înaltă calitate a început să crească. Sporirea în continuare a productivităţii animalelor, a producţiei zootehnice a depins în mare măsură şi de soluţionarea problemei deficitului de proteine în raţiile de hrană a animalelor. Calculele efectuate în prealabil au demonstrat necesitatea cultivării soiei, care serveşte drept sursă importantă de asigurare a animalelor cu proteină furajeră.

Soia este una din cele mai vechi culturi cultivate de om. În Europa şi America soia a fost adusă din China, unde tradiţiile de cultivare a acestei culturi se pierd în secole. Până nu demult în întreaga lume această cultură era utilizată doar ca hrană pentru animale. În Republica Moldova menirea soiei a rămas aceiaşi şi până în prezent. Actualmente, soia este utilizată pretutindeni pentru extragerea proteinei şi a derivatelor acesteia pentru producerea substituenţilor produselor alimentare de origine animală şi vegetală, compoziţia soiei, care este excepţional de bogată în proteină multifuncţională şi de calitate a permis elaborarea a numeroase ingrediente proteice alimentare, utilizate cu succes în consumul uman.

După cum a fost menţionat condiţiile naturale de sol şi climă, regimurile de căldură şi lumină din toate zonele Moldovei sunt prielnice pentru cultivarea soiei. Un factor limitativ la obţinerea recoltei de soia îl constituie umiditatea solului, îndeosebi în perioada înfloririi, formării şi umplerii boabelor. Experienţele efectuate pe parcursul mai multor ani şi practica de producţie demonstrează că zonele de nord şi centru ale republicii sunt destul de favorabile pentru cultivarea soiei şi obţinerea recoltelor înalte pe terenuri neirigate .

Pe parcursul anilor suprafeţele ocupate cu soia în Moldova au avut diferite fluctuaţii În perioada anilor 1988-1989 suprafeţele cu soia au atins cifra de 40 mii hectare.În anii 1996-1997 suprafeţele cu soia s-au micşorat drastic, ajungând la 3-4 mii hectare.

Cauzele care au condus la reducerea suprafeţelor de soia au fost:

-încălcarea disciplinei tehnologice la cultivarea acestei culturi, inclusiv:amplasarea soiei după premergători neprielnici, efectuarea semănatului în termeni târzii, fertilizarea insuficientă, lipsa unor măsuri eficiente de combatere a buruienilor, pierderile de roadă la recoltare cu combine moral şi fizic uzate (până la 15-20 la sută);

-neacordarea unei atenţii suficiente prelucrării materiei prime şi utilizării produselor procesate pentru obţinerea unui sortiment larg de produse alimentare.

Pentru obţinerea recoltelor scontate, producătorii de soia au un rol important în respectarea tehnologiilor de cultivare a soiei. Pentru a mări volumul de producere este necesar de o susţinere şi din partea statului. De exemplu în republica Groată producătorii de soia sunt asiguraţi cu subvenţii din partea statului de până la 280 euro pentru un hectar, iar în republica Serbă cei care cultivă soia, de asemenea primesc subvenţii de până la 130 euro la hectar . Având în vedere faptul că soia este o plantă importantă economică, de astfel şi susţinerea producătorilor de soia din partea statului ar putea conduce la creşterea volumelor de producţie pentru a asigura piaţa internă şi utilizarea deplină a capacităţilor disponibile ale industriei de procesare şi a exportului.

În ultimii 8-10 ani evoluţia suprafeţelor cultivate cu cultura soiei în Republica Moldova a marcat o majorare evidentă. Spre exemplu în anul 2006 suprafaţa ocupată cu soia a constituit cca 56 mii ha, iar în anii 2010-2012 suprafeţele ocupate cu soia au ajuns la 59 – 60 mii hectare .

Volumul recoltei de soia, stabilitatea şi calitatea producţiei la fel ca la orice altă cultură agricolă, depinde nu numai de nivelul agrotehnic de cultivare, dar şi de soi.Pentru alegerea corectă a soiurilor de soia in vederea semănatului, există mai mulţi factori importanţi, care trebuie luaţi in calcul, deoarece acestea pot afecta in mod direct potenţialul de producţie şi rentabilitatea. Potenţialul maxim de producţie al unui anumit soi de soia este determinat genetic şi poate fi atins doar printr-un management adecvat şi in condiţii de mediu corespunzător. Alegerea corectă a soiurilor trebuie să se facă in funcţie de productivitate,stabilitatea producţiei, precocitate, rezistentă la cădere, dehiscenţa păstăilor şi calitatea recoltei.

Obţinerea recoltelor înalte cu fluctuaţii neînsemnate pe ani a fost în mare măsură dependentă de introducerea în cultură a soiurilor cu capacitate superioară de producţie, înzestrate cu însuşiri de rezistenţă la factorii care o limitează. Recolta medie de soia la hectar în anul 2013 a fost de 1,7 tone la hectar, iar în anul 2014 productivitatea soiei la hectar pe republică a atins nivelul de 2,1 tone.

Dintre toate leguminoasele soia are cele mai ridicate cerinţe pentru azot. Daca inocularea seminţelor este efectuată corect, cantităţi importante de azot vor fi procurate din aerul atmosferic. In funcţie de condiţiile de creştere, fixarea biologică a azotului poate furniza 50 – 70% din necesarul total de azot al culturii de soia. Restul necesarului de azot al soiei este furnizat prin mineralizarea materiei organice din sol sau de azotul ramas de la cultura premergatoare. Cantităţile de azot acumulate de soia la 1 hectar: 118- 120 kg, care este echivalent cu cca 300-350 kg de salpetru amoniacal.

În condiţiile actuale, când are loc o reducere a posibilităţilor de procurare-cumpărare a îngrăşămintelor minerale a pesticidelor şi a altor preparate, o însemnătate tot mai mare îi revine soiei – cultura universală şi multiplicativă, eficientă în plan economico-financiar şi ecologic, fiind totodată recunoscută pretutindeni ca o cultură strategică de import –export.În această ordine de idei a crescut interesul tot a mai multor fermieri, lideri de formaţiuni agricole faţă de această cultură strategică.. Conform observațiilor,dacă se respectă în tocmai toate elementele tehnologice de cultivare a acestei culturi ea poate fi mai productivă de 2-3 ori.

Luînd în consideraţie importanţa acestei culturi preţioase pentru sectorul zootehnic în producerea nutreţurilor pentru păsări şi animale, cât şi pentru industria alimentară, considerăm oportun de a elabora un program de producere şi procesare a boabelor de soia. Scopul acestui program fiind extinderea suprafeţelor cu soia pînă la 100-120 mii hectare, sporirea volumului de producere a boabelor de soia,procesarea şi utilizarea produselor finite pentru producerea proteinei şi derivatelor ei. În cadrul acestui program trebuie prevăzut realizarea unui şir de măsuri organizatorice, financiare şi tehnico-materiale. Astfel vom putea asigura, în primul rînd necesităţile pieţei interne cu perspectiva obţinerii şi a unor produse competitive pentru piaţa europeană. Procesarea industrială a soiei va stabiliza producţia din sectorul agrar, unde va fi o cerere de materie primă constantă, ce va condiţiona o piaţă de desfacere determinată pentru producătorii de soia.

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Nanking cherry (Prunus tomentosa)

Prunus tomentosa is a shrub deciduous –resistant in winter period   at temperature of up to -45 degrees. It grow relatively quickly with an irregular shape. It will rarely reach 4 m tall and possibly a width of more than 4 m. Flowers are white or pink, opening with leaves or before spring. The fruit consists of a cherry, tastes like a normal, 5-12 mm dark red cherry that bakes early in the summer. This description is valid for almost any cherry fruit, but for  the  species  can will vary. Some plants may give pink, almost white, not red, fruit. The fruits of some plants can  bake late  but  not early summer.

Nanking cherry  grow in the cold and  semi arid regions of Asia. It is one of the most cultivated fruit trees   from  Russia.  It was introduced from North America in 1882 and was immediately received with great enthusiasm.

He prefer a sunny place and  can  growing  naturally in a variety of soils.  The plant is resistant to drought.  The   Nanking cherry grows  like a broad-leaved shrub, or like  a small tree with many stems.   Beside the very good resistance to frost, this shrub also has a great quality: the pleasant look This plant has a pleasant appearance  from    three of   the four seasons. Autumn does not have a spectacular color, but in winter when the bark will no longer be hidden beneath the dense leaves of the plant, it will have a glossy orange-brown appearance. In the Spring  Nanking cherry will be among the first plants which flourish while the others will  do not even give life signs. The flowers will be clustered in bundles, wearing the branches all along their length.

Flowers are very resistant to frost, is  a desirable feature  for  a plant that blooms so early. So unlike other plants that bloom in this period. Nanking cherry will have a rich harvest. The  summer early will  bring with it  the fruits that will have a pleasant look and also green leaves will cover the stems.

  The  Naking cherry will grow in almost any sunny place and well drained soil, but it is possible to grow in the shade (although the harvest will not be as rich).The  plants can have a life span of up to fifty years. Annual trimming, although not a necessity, will increase harvest and fruit quality. Cutting in the winter late in order to keep the bushes  open so that all the branches have access to light and air. Some branches will be shortened, others removed completely and others will be left untouched. This trimming will be also stimulate the harvest of new sprouts every year. In Russia  the old shrubs will be cut at   the ground to regenerate.

The   Nanking cherry is not  sensitive to diseases or pests, but if they appear, they will be the same as  at   classic cherry. The yield of the fruit per one  shrub  in average (in Russia) is 6 kg, and can reach up to 22kg. The  Nanking cherry are not suitable for trade ,because they are too soft to be transported. The fruits are a bit smaller than normal cherries, but the difference is that when you will  collect the cherry  the tailed will be  remain on  branch. The  Nanking cherry are ideal to be eaten fresh just after they have been harvested, or for fresh juices.

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Health benefits of raspberries

This fruit is high in dietary fiber and manganese. Fiber aids in slowing down the digestive process so that you will feel full for longer. The trace mineral manganese keeps your metabolic rate high, and thereby burns fat. If you are looking for a delicious and effective way to lose weight, raspberries can be the best natural option

Raspberries work like magic on wrinkles. They can be used as a natural face mask. They also protect the skin against the sun’s rays. The antioxidant powers of vitamin C effectively reduce the age spots and discoloration. By filling in minor wrinkles, they can help you restore your youthful appearance. They can be made into great facial masks for glowing skin; you just need to mix 1 cup of plain yogurt and 2 cups of fresh raspberries, then blend the mixture until it becomes completely smooth. Apply the mixture to your entire face and keep it on for 15 minutes. Then, wash it off with tepid water.

Three servings of raspberries per day can prove to be a brilliant natural remedy for macular degeneration. Macular degeneration is an age-related medical condition that affects your vision. This leads to a loss of vision in the midpoint of the visual field due to damage to the retina. This can occur in both “dry” and “wet” forms. You can add these berries to your morning cereal or lunchtime yogurt. You can alter the taste and look of any green salad with a handful of these fresh raspberries and an addition of balsamic vinegar. You can also mix the frozen raspberries with a spoonful of honey and some vanilla soy milk, then freeze this mixture for 20 minutes and spoon it into serving cups. Garnish with mint and enjoy the healthy treat. (Read more: The New Healing Herbs: The Classic Guide to Nature’s Best Medicines by Michael Castleman)

Raspberries, blackberries and muscadine grapes all have metalloproteinase enzymes. These are essential for the development and renovation of tissues, however if they are produced in abnormally high amounts, they may act as a catalyst for cancer development. They have high amounts of vitamin C, riboflavin, folate, magnesium, manganese, niacin, potassium and copper. This makes them a complete fruit to offer overall, healthy prosperity.

Some documentation has suggested that raspberries are also good specifically for women. They are good for single women, pregnant women, and lactating mothers. (Read more: Smart medicine for a healthier child by Janet Zand, Robert Rountree, Bob Rountree, Rachel Walton) Raspberry leaves can be used as herbal teas for single women, which regulate menstrual cycles and decrease excessively heavy menstrual flows. For pregnant women, raspberry tea successfully relieves nausea, prevents hemorrhage, reduces pain and helps in childbirth. For lactating mothers, raspberry tea or eating the fruit will help to increase the production of breast.

Raspberries and other forms of berries have truly magnificent color, aroma and flavor that actually do not require any recipe for consuming. However, if you wish to enhance your diet with a complete nutritious meal, you can of course add raspberries to make your recipes unique. To make a raspberry drink, Mix one packet of flavored raspberry gelatin with a half cup of boiling water. Keep blending this mixture until the gelatin is completely dissolved. Then add a half cup of vanilla yoghurt, a half cup of fruit and one cup of crushed ice. Blend the drink well, until it becomes smooth.

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Health Benefits of Spelt

Health Benefits of SpeltHealth Benefits of Spelt (Triticum spelta) is really a grain within the wheat family which has been in farming for hundreds of years. Several debate has occurred over the classification of spelt, with a few botanists considering it a subspecies of common wheat as well as others saying that it is really an completely distinct varieties. Spelt fell out of popularity among grain cultivators because of the hardness of the outer shell, however with the advent of the health foods movement within the 1980s, spelt started to enter in the popular diet again.

Spelt is actually a healthy varieties of wheat having a deep nutlike taste. Even before most of the wheat hybrids, spelt has been utilized by people. It scores more over a number of other varieties of wheat in containing a rich source of nutrients. Spelt could be consumed in whole form referred to as spelt berries, hulled form or perhaps the form of spelt flour. It initially is associated with Iran and Southeastern Europe. It is among the first grains which are utilized to make bread. It served like a staple grain for the ancient civilizations just like Greece and Rome. Spelt is extremely health effective and keeping this point in view we offer you the health advantages of consuming spelt in the below lines.

The very high-content of fiber in spelt implies that it allows for healthy digestion in a major way. Dietary fiber helps you to bulk up your stool and move food from the digestive system, accelerating the absorption of nutrition and assisting to decrease situations like constipation, bloating, cramping, excessive gas, diarrhea, and much more severe intestinal issues just like ulcers. Spelt has among the greatest dietary fiber contents of wheat varieties.

Dietary fiber features a second role within the body, which is to assist decrease the amount of dangerous cholesterol within the body. Dietary fiber can communicate with the cholesterol uptake processes as well as prevent the absorption of cholesterol from food. In reality, it may specifically target LDL cholesterol and also avoid it from the body to manage a healthy balance of fatty acids within the body.

Spelt comes with a remarkable range of important minerals which are essential for bone health, including zinc, magnesium, copper, phosphorous, and selenium. These types of minerals contribute to the creation of bone tissue and also by enhancing the levels of these minerals within your body, you are able to actively avoid osteoporosis along with other age-related problems that weaken or degrade the bones within our body.

Even though simple sugars and carbohydrates are recognized to be hazardous for diabetics, the high fiber content in spelt can combat those effects and help to manage the release as well as breakdown of those simple sugars into glucose. By controlling the release of insulin and glucose within the body, it will help to manage diabetes for individuals who already have problems with the condition, or even prevent more people from developing it.

Fiber given by whole grains offered the most defense against breast cancer. Pre-menopausal women consuming the most whole grain fiber (at least 13 g/day) had a 41% reduced chance of breast cancer, than others with the lowest whole grain fiber intake (4 g or less per day).

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Zmeura si beneficiile pentru sanatate

     Zmeurul aparține familiei Rosaceae (Rubus idaeus), este un arbust tufos, peren, cu lastari taratori, cu tulpini drepte, arcuite spre varf, cu ghimpi drepti, de forma unor ace, adeseori plasati numai pe partea inferioara. Zmeura  este bogata in acid elagic, un compus fenolic care ajuta la prevenirea cancerului, care inhiba cresterea celulelor canceroase si care opreste dezvoltarea anumitor forme de cancer.Uleiul din seminte de zmeura este un factor natural de protectie solara. Acesta contine cantitati mari de compusi polifenolici cunoscuti pentru rolul lor anti-cancer. Zmeura contine antioxidanti puternici, cum ar fi vitamina C, quercetina si acidul galic. Dintre minerale, zmeura contine cantitati importante de mangan, magneziu, cupru si potasiu. Fructele de zmeura contin si calciu, zinc, fosfor, toate in forme usor asimilabile. Zmeura este bogata in compusi importanti pentru o vedere sanatoasa. Substanta considerata a fi responsabila de aceasta calitate este luteina. Zmeura contine un fitonutrient denumit de cercetatori “rheosmina”, renumit pentru efectele benefice in bolile metabolice. Rheosmina creste metabolismul celulelor adipoase, prin cresterea activitatii enzimatice si a consumului de oxigen, la acest nivel. Acest fapt duce la eliminarea si utilizarea depozitelor de grasime. Zmeura ne intinereste, mentine inima sanatoasa si intareste sistemul imunitar. Zmeura contine mangan, magneziu, calciu, zinc, potasiu, fosfor, toate in forme usor asimilabile, vitaminele A, B1, B2, D si P, dar mai ales vitamina C. Exista studii care arata ca beneficiile consumului de zmeura exista si in ceea ce priveste fertilitatea atat in cazul femeilor, cat si in cazul barbatilor. Acest lucru este dat de nivelul crescut de vitamina C, dar si de magneziu.Zmeura este saraca in calorii si bogata in fibre, ceea ce o face esentiala in alimentatia zilnica.Ea  este foarte satioasa si ajuta la prelungirea procesului de digestie, astfel ca nu vei resimti foamea la scurt timp după ce tocmai ai mancat.

Consumand zmeura, aducem in organism o paleta larga de antioxidanti si compusi antiinflamatori care intaresc imunitatea, redau vitalitatea organismului si incetinesc procesele de imbatranire.Diversitatea antioxidantilor din zmeura este remarcabila si unica printre fructe:

  • Antocianine: cianidine, pelargonidine, delphinidine, malvidine
  • Flavonoli: quercetina, kaempferol
  • Flavanoli: catehine, epicatehine
  • Taninuri: elagitanin, galotanin, proantocianidine
  • Acizi hidroxibenzoici: acid elagic, acid vanilic, acid gallic, acid clorogenic
  • Acizi hidroxicinamici: acid cafeic, acid cumaric, acid ferulic
  • Resveratrol.Totodata trebuie de avut in vedere zmeura contine oxalati, substante care se gasesc in mod natural in organismul uman, in plante si in animale. Cand cantitatea de oxalati devine prea concentrata, acestia se cristalizeaza provocand probleme de sanatate. Persoanele care au pietre la rinichi sau la fiere netratate trebuie sa evite zmeura. Studii de laborator au dovedit ca oxalatii pot impiedica buna absorbtie a calciului in organism.
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Sparceta si beneficiile ei

Sparceta (Onobrychis viciifolia) creste spontan in zonele de campie. Este o planta  perena, ierboasa, relativ inalta. Spre maturitatea semintelor, tulpina se lignifica. Frunzele mari sunt imparipenat-compuse. Florile roz-violacee sunt grupate in racem lung pedunculat. Fructul este o pastaie indehiscenta, avand la suprafata reticultii caracteristice, poate fi cultivata pe terenuri calcaroase cu stratul arabil subtire, in special pe pante erodate, unde culturile de lucerna sau de trifoi nu reusesc .

Ea poate fi cultivata in zone foarte secetoase, fara irigare, in cultura pura sau in amestec cu Obsiga sau cu pirul crestat,previne eroziunea pe terenurile aflate in pante,nu provoaca meteorizatia, spre deosebire de lucerna si de trifoi, deci poate fi consumata fara riscuri asupra sanatatii animalelor,produce usor cantitati mari de samanta, spre deosebire de lucerna si de trifoi.  In privinta zonelor de cultura, sparceta are numai doua restrictii, si anume: nu suporta terenurile care au (panza) apa freatica mai la suprafata si nici pe cele care nu sunt bine aprovizionate cu calciu.

Nu este deosebit de cunoscuta nici in medicina contemporana, dar nici remediile din popor nu au pastrat extrem de multe leacuri in componenta carora intra aceasta planta.In popor este cunoscuta ca Iarba-Saraca, Baltarina, Sparceta, iar în unele tari este numita Capul-Cocosului din pricina asemanarii ei cu o creasta. Are o tulpina paroasa, cu flori roz sau rosii-carmin si un fruct sub forma unei pastai scurte. Este in general utilizata ca planta furajera, insa florile ei roz sunt o sursa deosebit de buna de nectar pentru albine. Infloreste din iunie pana in septembrie, prin fanete, pana in regiunea montana superioara.

Plamadita cu vin, adica baut vinul in care a stat planta un anumit numar de zile pentru a-i putea extrage proprietatile curative, avea puterea de a vindeca retentiile urinare. Ea ajuta la eliberarea blocajelor minore ale sistemului renal, detoxifica si stimuleaza aparatul urinar si asigura, din punct de vedere energetic, buna functionaare a sistemului de eliminare a energiilor reziduale, in special prin urina, dinamizand in acelasi timp campurile care stocheaza energia vitala in zona rinichilor si suprarenalelor.Dacii mai faceau o alifie din aceasta planta, macerata in untdelemn curat, care avea functie sudorifica: natura focoasa si dinamica a acestei plante producea transpiratia, adica eliminarea toxinelor tot prin intermediul apei, ca la rinichi, insa de data aceasta prin piele. Atat transpiratia cat si functia urinara au rolul de a elimina odata cu apa produsa in tesuturi mare parte din ceea ce nu ne este folositor in organism. Vorbim aici atat de toxinele hidrosolubile (care se dizolva in apa si pot fi eliminate odata cu ea din corp), cat si de impuritatile energetice.

        Sparceta ca planta  functioneaza pe principiul dinamic al focului, la nivelul corpului eteric. Antrenand toxinele si impuritatile energetice cu ajutorul acestui principiu cald si dizolvandule, ele pot fi eliminate mult mai usor de catre organismul bolnavului. Iar cand vorbim de organism, in viziunea medicilor zalmoxieni, aici ne referim la intreg complexul energetic ce susţine funcţiile corpului fizic, de sanatatea caruia trebuie să ne ingrijim deopotriva. Sparceta era o planta a focului purificator, alchimic, care odata dizolvat si aplicat bolnavului ii poate reda acestuia propriul foc interior prin intermediul caruia sa lupte impotriva acelor infectii,care  puteau sa fie acumulate in corp. Din pacate, cunostinţele despre aceasta planta s-au pierdut, insa este bine de ştiut ca nu exista planta pe care getii sa nu o fi folosit pentru a trata.

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Ghimbirul si beneficiile pentru sanatate


Ghimbirul (Zingiber officinale) este o planta erbacee aromata,  perena care are nevoie de o temperatură ridicată si constanta precum si de o umiditate permanentă pentru a se dezvolta corespunzator. Rizomul de ghimbir are o formă neregulata, contorsionata si e noduros, atingand pana la 5-6 centimetri in lungime. Ghimbirul e deosebit de prețuit in bucatariile orientale din India, Malaezia, Nepal, Bangladesh etc. Un nume alternativ al ghimbirului, introdus de turci in Moldova și Muntenia a fost cel de ‘piper alb’. Denumirea de ghimbir a fost folosită mai ales în Banat și Ardeal provenind din maghiarul gyömber, iar apoi s-a impus în întreaga țară. In fostele colonii britanice, cum ar fi Canada, Australia, Jamaica, Kenya, se consuma o asa-zisa “bere” din ghimber (ginger beer) care de fapt este o băutura ne-alcoolica, racoritoar

El este  folosit in medicina chineza si indiana, in acelasi timp fiind aproape nelipsita in dieta specific asiatica.Desi putin cunoscuta si apreciata pe meleagurile noastre, radacina de ghimbir, principala parte din planta care este folosita, este deosebit de aromata, avand un gust atat picant cat si dulce si o savoare deosebita, de neuitat

Ghimbirul isi datoreaza proprietatile sale deosebite, principiilor activi prezenti in compozitia sa. Printre acestia se afla: compusi fenolici: shogaol si gingerol, sesquiterpene: bisapolen, zingiberen, zingiberol, sesquiphellandrene, curcumina, galactolactone, gingesulfonic, geraniol, nerol.

Prin continutul sau in uleiuri volatile si substante antiinflamatorii, ghimbirul este un remediu excelent in raceli si gripe, fiind la indemana oricui doreste sa-l foloseasca in inflamtii ale gatului, raguseala, febra, sub forma de ceaiuri, pulbere sau sirop de ghimbir.Desi nu se stie exact mecanismul exact prin care actioneaza, ghimbirul se utilizeaza frecvent in caz de greata, voma, rau de avion sau rau de masina, cu rezultate foarte bune. De asemenea se foloseste si in caz de greata aparuta ca efect secundar al chimioterapiei.

Studii realizate pe loturi de pacienti care au realizat tratament cu ghimbir pentru calmarea durerilor articulare, au dovedit ca ghimbirul are cel putin acelasi efect cu folosirea antiinflamatoarelor de sinteza (aspirina, diclofenac, ibuprofen), neavand insa efectele secundare nedorite asociate acestora. De aici, superioritatea tratamentului natural cu ghimbir este evidenta, atunci cand pacientul se afla sub indrumarea unui medic fitoterapeut.

Multe studii sugereaza ca utilizarea ghimbirului scade inflamarea colonului si a intestinelor, reducand astfel riscul de cancer de colon. Mai mult decat atat, medicii de la UMCCC (Universitatea din Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center) au demonstrat ca aceasta radacina uimitoare inhiba cu succes celulele de cancer ovarian.

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